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Table 3 Overview on training session elements for embedded and added MI

From: Comparison of embedded and added motor imagery training in patients after stroke: results of a randomised controlled pilot trial

  MI training session element MI training session elements for embedded MI MI training session elements for added MI
MITS elements Integration of MI (embedded, added) Embedded into physiotherapy session Added after physiotherapy session
  Session (group or individual) Individual session Individual session
  Temporal order MI trials before physical practice trial MI trials after physiotherapy session
  Supervision by an instructor Supervised Not supervised
  Directedness with stepwise guidance Directed Directed
  Location of MITS (task-specific, not task-specific) Task-specific: during physiotherapy on red mat with chair for support Not task-specific: after physiotherapy session in separate room on a treatment bench
  Position of the individual during MI (task-specific, not task-specific) Task-specific: depending on the motor task stage that has to be imagined Not task-specific: supine lying on a treatment bench
  Instruction medium (acoustic) Spoken instructions directly from therapist Spoken instructions from therapist on tape
  Instruction type (detailed, keywords, coarse) Detailed Detailed
  Instruction individualisation (standardised, tailored) Standardised Standardised
  Instruction mode (live, pre-recorded) Live Pre-recorded
  Eyes (open, closed) Closed Closed
  Perspective (internal, external) Internal Internal
  Mode (kinaesthetic, visual) Both: first visual MI, then kinaesthetic MI Both: first visual MI, then kinaesthetic MI
  Focus (motor, cognitive, strength) Motor Motor
  Familiarisation with MI before intervention start None None
Temporal parameters Number of MI trials in one MITS 5 to 9 visual,
2 to 4 kinaesthetic
6 to 8 visual,
1 to 3 kinaesthetic
  Duration of one MITS embedded into physiotherapy: 15 to 20 min added after physiotherapy: 15 to 20 min
  Total MI time within 6 MITS 6× MI training session duration = 90 to 120 min 6× MI training session = 90 to 120 min
  1. Words in bold indicate differences between embedded and added MI training sessions.
  2. MI Motor imagery