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Table 1 Ethical principles and rules for the conduct of clinical research. (Adapted from [17])

From: Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research

Moral Principle Moral Rule
Respect for persons Obtain the informed consent of prospective research subjects (or their surrogate decision makers).
  Protect the confidentiality of private information.
Beneficence Therapeutic procedures must satisfy clinical equipoise.
  Risks of non-therapeutic procedures must be (1) minimized and (2) reasonable in relation to knowledge to be gained.
Justice Subject selection procedures must be fair.
  Compensate subjects harmed as a result of research participation.
Respect for communities Respect communal values, and protect and empower social institutions.
  Where applicable, abide by the decisions of legitimate communal authority.