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Table 2 Exclusion Criteria

From: Effectiveness of focused structural massage and relaxation massage for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Exclusion criteria Rationale Source*
Cancer (other than basal cell or squamous cell cancer of skin) Back pain due to, or possibly result of, specific disease/condition A, TI
Discitis   A
Disk disease   A
Fracture of vertebra   A, TI
Infectious cause of back pain   TI
Scoliosis, severe or progressive   A, TI
Spinal stenosis   A, TI
Osteoporosis   A, TI
Spondylolisthesis   TI
Sciatica Back problem of complicated nature, including medico-legal issues TI
Seeking/receiving compensation/litigation for back pain   TI
Surgery, recent, in the past 6 months   A, TI
Surgery, previous low back, within 3 years   TI
Pregnancy Safety not confirmed TI
Stroke, recent in the past 6 months Condition might make it difficult to receive or complete the treatments A
Paralysis   A, TI
Physically unable to undergo massage sessions (e.g., cannot lie prone for 45 minutes)   TI
Psychoses, major   A, TI
Schedules do not permit attending treatment sessions at times they are offered   TI
Vision problems, severe   TI
Hearing problems, severe   TI
Lack of transportation   TI
Seizure disorder Condition might contribute to increased risk of severe adverse event A, TI
Fibromyalgia, severe Condition/circumstance might confound treatment effects or interpretation of data TI
Rheumatoid arthritis/Ankylosing spondylitis   A, TI
Other disabling chronic conditions (e.g., disabling heart or lung disease, diabetic neuropathy, receiving treatment for hepatitis)   TI
Planning on seeing health care provider other than primary care provider for low back pain   TI
Dementia Condition would make it difficult for fully informed consent A
Unable to read or speak English   TI
Has had massage in the past 12 months for any reason Wants massage for free, or potential for preconceived notions about massage possibly confounding data TI
Low back pain has lasted < 3 months Low back pain not chronic TI
Bothersomeness of pain score < 3 Back pain too mild to be able to detect improvement TI
Hypersensitivity to touch or loss or sensation Inappropriate conditions for massage TI
Cardiovascular compromise   A, TI
Deep vein thrombosis   A, TI
  1. *A = Automated visit data
  2. *TI = Telephone interview