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  1. Non-pharmacological, non-surgical interventions are recommended as the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. There is evidence that exercise therapy is effective for reducing pai...

    Authors: J Haxby Abbott, M Clare Robertson, Joanne E McKenzie, G David Baxter, Jean-Claude Theis and A John Campbell

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Almost 50% of Americans have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The behaviors required to lower LDL-C levels may be difficult to adhere to if they are inconsistent with spouses' health pract...

    Authors: Corrine I Voils, William S Yancy Jr, Stacey Kovac, Cynthia J Coffman, Morris Weinberger, Eugene Z Oddone, Amy Jeffreys, Santanu Datta and Hayden B Bosworth

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:10

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy is one of the definite methods for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with lesser intraoperative bleeding and shorter hospitalization compared with abdomina...

    Authors: Hee Seung Kim, Jae Weon Kim, Mi-Kyung Kim, Hyun Hoon Chung, Taek Sang Lee, Yong-Tark Jeon, Yong Beom Kim, Hye Won Jeon, Young Ho Yun, Noh Hyun Park, Yong Sang Song and Soon-Beom Kang

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:8

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Authors: Caroline Laurence, Angela Gialamas, Lisa Yelland, Tanya Bubner, Philip Ryan, Kristyn Willson, Briony Glastonbury, Janice Gill, Mark Shephard and Justin Beilby

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:7

    Content type: Erratum

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2008 9:50

  5. An abundance of literature is dedicated to research for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most, is in the area of pharmacological therapies with less emphasis in psychotherapy a...

    Authors: Fay Karpouzis, Henry Pollard and Rod Bonello

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:6

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD) by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk fa...

    Authors: Fereidoun Azizi, Arash Ghanbarian, Amir Abbas Momenan, Farzad Hadaegh, Parvin Mirmiran, Mehdi Hedayati, Yadollah Mehrabi and Saleh Zahedi-Asl

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:5

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. There is no recommendation to screen ferritin level in blood donors, even though several studies have noted the high prevalence of iron deficiency after blood donation, particularly among menstruating females....

    Authors: Baptiste Pedrazzini, Sophie Waldvogel, Jacques Cornuz, Paul Vaucher, Raphael Bize, Jean-Daniel Tissot, Alain Pecoud and Bernard Favrat

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:4

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Flaws in research papers are common but it may require arduous detective work to unravel them. Checklists are helpful, but many inconsistencies will only be revealed through repeated cross-checks of every litt...

    Authors: Peter C Gøtzsche

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:2

    Content type: Commentary

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  9. Assessing the quality of included trials is a central part of a systematic review. Many check-list type of instruments for doing this exist. Using a trial of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media, Burke ...

    Authors: Karim F Hirji

    Citation: Trials 2009 10:1

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Whiplash injuries are an important public health problem that is associated with significant disability and high health care utilization. Recent cohort studies suggest that physician care may be the most effec...

    Authors: Pierre Côté, J David Cassidy, Simon Carette, Eleanor Boyle, Heather M Shearer, Maja Stupar, Carlo Ammendolia, Gabrielle van der Velde, Jill A Hayden, Xiaoqing Yang, Maurits van Tulder and John W Frank

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:75

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Adhesive small intestine occlusion [ASIO] is an important cause of hospital admission placing a substantial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Often times, ASIO is associated with significant morbidity an...

    Authors: Fausto Catena, Luca Ansaloni, Augusto Lauro, Giorgio Ercolani, Luigi D'Alessandro and Antonio Pinna

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:74

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is common and can lead to tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy or chronic pelvic pain. Despite major UK government investment in the National Chlamydia Screening Progra...

    Authors: Pippa Oakeshott, Sally Kerry, Helen Atherton, Adamma Aghaizu, Sima Hay, David Taylor-Robinson, Ian Simms and Phillip Hay

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:73

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Experimental studies have shown that ultrasound contrast agents enhance the effectiveness of thrombolytic agents in the presence of ultrasound in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we have launched a clinical pilot stu...

    Authors: Jeroen Slikkerveer, Pieter A Dijkmans, Gertjan T Sieswerda, Pieter AFM Doevendans, Arie PJ van Dijk, Freek WA Verheugt, Thomas R Porter and Otto Kamp

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:72

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), however, its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated only with organoleptic measurem...

    Authors: Kayoko Shinada, Masayuki Ueno, Chisato Konishi, Sachiko Takehara, Sayaka Yokoyama and Yoko Kawaguchi

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:71

    Content type: Research

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  15. Hot flushes are the most frequent climacteric symptom and a major cause of suffering among menopausal women. The condition negatively influences many aspects of women's lives. To date, conventional hormone rep...

    Authors: Kun-Hyung Kim, Kyung-Won Kang, Hee-Jung Jung, Ji-Eun Park, So-Young Jung, Jun-Yong Choi and Sun-Mi Choi

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:70

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Standards for reporting clinical trials have improved the transparency of patient-important research. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) published an extension to address noninferiority a...

    Authors: Oghenowede Eyawo, Chia-Wen Lee, Beth Rachlis and Edward J Mills

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:69

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patients with implanted cardiac devices is currently considered hazardous due to potential for electromagnetic interference to the patient and pacemaker system. With approxi...

    Authors: Richard Sutton, Emanuel Kanal, Bruce L Wilkoff, David Bello, Roger Luechinger, Inge Jenniskens, Michael Hull and Torsten Sommer

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:68

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Panic disorder (PD) is a common, severe and persistent mental disorder, associated with a high degree of distress and occupational and social disability. A substantial proportion of the population experiences ...

    Authors: Peter Meulenbeek, Godelief Willemse, Filip Smit, Anton van Balkom, Philip Spinhoven and Pim Cuijpers

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:67

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Twenty to 30 percent of all transient ischaemic attacks and ischaemic strokes involve tissue supplied by the vertebrobasilar circulation. Atherosclerotic stenosis ≥ 50% in the vertebral artery accounts for ver...

    Authors: A Compter, HB van der Worp, WJ Schonewille, JA Vos, A Algra, TH Lo, WPThM Mali, FL Moll and LJ Kappelle

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:65

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. There is wide recognition that pragmatic randomised trials are the best vehicle for economic evaluation. This is because trials provide the best chance of ensuring internal validity, not least through the rigo...

    Authors: Rhiannon T Edwards, Barry Hounsome, Pat Linck and Ian T Russell

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:64

    Content type: Letter

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  21. TB and HIV form a deadly synergy in much of the developing world, especially Africa. Interventions to reduce the impact of these diseases at community level are urgently needed. This paper presents the design ...

    Authors: Helen M Ayles, Charalambos Sismanidis, Nulda Beyers, Richard J Hayes and Peter Godfrey-Faussett

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:63

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Osteoporosis-related fractures are a significant public health concern. Interventions that increase detection and treatment of osteoporosis, as well as prevention of fractures and falls, are substantially unde...

    Authors: PM Ciaschini, SE Straus, LR Dolovich, RA Goeree, KM Leung, CR Woods, GM Zimmerman, SR Majumdar, S Spadafora, LA Fera and HN Lee

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:62

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. A full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) is a common retinal condition associated with impaired vision. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that surgery, by means of pars plana vitrectomy and pos...

    Authors: Noemi Lois, Jennifer Burr, John Norrie, Luke Vale, Jonathan Cook and Alison McDonald

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:61

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Totally Implantable Access Ports (TIAP) are being extensively used world-wide and can be expected to gain further importance with the introduction of new neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments in oncology. Two di...

    Authors: Philip Knebel, Lars Fischer, Eva Cremonese, Ruben Lopez-Benitez, Ulrike Stampfl, Boris Radeleff, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Markus W Büchler and Christoph M Seiler

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:60

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Following a stroke, 55–75% of patients experience upper limb problems in the longer term. Upper limb spasticity may cause pain, deformity and reduced function, affecting mood and independence. Botulinum toxin ...

    Authors: Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Christopher Price, Frederike van Wijck, Michael Barnes, Laura Graham, Gary Ford, Phil Shackley and Nick Steen

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:59

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction may reduce the risk of surgical site infections, as bacterial eradication by neutrophils depends on wound oxygen tension. Two trials have shown that a high peri...

    Authors: Christian S Meyhoff, Jørn Wetterslev, Lars N Jorgensen, Steen W Henneberg, Inger Simonsen, Therese Pulawska, Line R Walker, Nina Skovgaard, Kim Heltø, Peter Gocht-Jensen, Palle S Carlsson, Henrik Rask, Sharaf Karim, Charlotte G Carlsen, Frank S Jensen and Lars S Rasmussen

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:58

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. The effectiveness of using acupuncture to treat migraine is rarely and even suspectedly reported in the literature. In this article, we report the design and the protocol of a randomized controlled large-scale...

    Authors: Ying Li, Fanrong Liang, Shuguang Yu, Xuguang Liu, Yong Tang, Xuguang Yang, Xiaoping Tian, Jie Yan, Guojie Sun, Xiaorong Chang, Hui Zheng, Hongxing Zhang and Tingting Ma

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:57

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growt...

    Authors: Praveen J Patel, Catey Bunce and Adnan Tufail

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:56

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and when severe is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The principal cause of severe renal failure is cast nephropathy, a d...

    Authors: Colin A Hutchison, Mark Cook, Nils Heyne, Katja Weisel, Lucinda Billingham, Arthur Bradwell and Paul Cockwell

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:55

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular fu...

    Authors: Whady Hueb, Neuza H M Lopes, Bernard J Gersh, Cláudio C Castro, Felipe S Paulitsch, Sergio A Oliveira, Luis A Dallan, Alexandre C Hueb, Noedir A Stolf and José A F Ramires

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:52

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are perceived as the gold-standard method for evaluating healthcare interventions, and increasingly include quality of life (QoL) measures. The observed results are suscepti...

    Authors: Shona Fielding, Graeme Maclennan, Jonathan A Cook and Craig R Ramsay

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:51

    Content type: Research

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  32. Point of care testing (PoCT) may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP). The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enha...

    Authors: Caroline Laurence, Angela Gialamas, Lisa Yelland, Tanya Bubner, Philip Ryan, Kristyn Willson, Briony Glastonbury, Janice Gill, Mark Shephard and Justin Beilby

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:50

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Scree...

    Authors: Alexander M de Vos, Annemarieke Rutten, Hester J van de Zaag-Loonen, Michiel L Bots, Riksta Dikkers, Robert A Buiskool, Willem P Mali, Daniel D Lubbers, Arend Mosterd, Mathias Prokop, Benno J Rensing, Maarten J Cramer, H Wouter van Es, Frans L Moll, Eric D van de Pavoordt, Pieter A Doevendans…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:49

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Depression frequently occurs in the elderly. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to disturbances of biological rhythmicity. In both normal aging, and depression, the functioning of the supr...

    Authors: Ritsaert Lieverse, Marjan M A Nielen, Dick J Veltman, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Eus J W van Someren, Jan H Smit and Witte J G Hoogendijk

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:48

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Although interim analysis approaches in clinical trials are widely known, information on current practice of planned monitoring is still scarce. Reports of studies rarely include details on the strategies for ...

    Authors: Irene Floriani, Nicole Rotmensz, Elena Albertazzi, Valter Torri, Marisa De Rosa, Carlo Tomino and Fillipo de Braud

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:46

    Content type: Research

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  36. During clinical trials in emergency medicine, providing appropriate oral and written information to a patient is usually a challenge. There is little published information regarding patients' opinions and comp...

    Authors: Piotr Iwanowski, Andrzej Budaj, Anna Członkowska, Wojciech Wąsek, Beata Kozłowska-Boszko, Urszula Olędzka and Wojciech Masełbas

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:45

    Content type: Research

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  37. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft...

    Authors: Miguel Sousa Uva, Fernando Matias, Sara Cavaco and Manuel Pedro Magalhães

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:44

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascula...

    Authors: Jean Raymond, Andrew J Molyneux, Allan J Fox, S Claiborne Johnston, Jean-Paul Collet and Isabelle Rouleau

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:43

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optima...

    Authors: Carsten Hjorthøj, Allan Fohlmann, Anne-Mette Larsen, Mette TR Madsen, Lone Vesterager, Christian Gluud, Mikkel C Arendt and Merete Nordentoft

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:42

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Myocardial infarction remains as a major cause of mortality worldwide and a high rate of survivors develop heart failure as a sequel, resulting in a high morbidity and elevated expenditures for health system r...

    Authors: Hans F R Dohmann, Suzana A Silva, André L S Sousa, Alcione M S Braga, Rodrigo V C Branco, Andréa F Haddad, Mônica A Oliveira, Rodrigo C Moreira, Fabio A A Tuche, Cíntia M Peixoto, Bernardo R Tura, Radovan Borojevic, Jorge P Ribeiro, José C Nicolau, Antonio C Nóbrega and Antonio C C Carvalho

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Patients with refractory angina have significant morbidity. This study aimed to compare two of the treatment options, Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) and Percutaneous Myocardial Laser Revascularisation (PMR) in ...

    Authors: M T Dyer, K A Goldsmith, S N Khan, L D Sharples, C Freeman, I Hardy, M J Buxton and P M Schofield

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:40

    Content type: Research

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  42. In spite of numerous guidelines for evidence based diagnostic and therapy adequate knowledge of current recommendations is disappointingly low. In the Hypertension Evaluation Project (HEP I) we showed that awa...

    Authors: Jens Hagemeister, Christian A Schneider, Holger Diedrichs, Diana Mebus, Holger Pfaff, Gernot Wassmer and Hans W Höpp

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:39

    Content type: Research

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  43. Due to its rising prevalence type 2 diabetes plays an important role concerning population health in Austria and other western countries. In various studies deficiencies in the care of diabetic patients have b...

    Authors: Andreas C Sönnichsen, Andreas Rinnerberger, Maria G Url, Henrike Winkler, Peter Kowatsch, Gert Klima, Bernhard Fürthauer and Raimund Weitgasser

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is approved for use in selected patients with ischaemic stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset. IST-3 seeks to determine whether a wider range of pa...

    Authors: Peter Sandercock, Richard Lindley, Joanna Wardlaw, Martin Dennis, Steff Lewis, Graham Venables, Adam Kobayashi, Anna Czlonkowska, Eivind Berge, Karsten Bruins Slot, Veronica Murray, Andre Peeters, Graeme Hankey, Karl Matz, Michael Brainin, Stefano Ricci…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:37

    Content type: Study protocol

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