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  1. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Scree...

    Authors: Alexander M de Vos, Annemarieke Rutten, Hester J van de Zaag-Loonen, Michiel L Bots, Riksta Dikkers, Robert A Buiskool, Willem P Mali, Daniel D Lubbers, Arend Mosterd, Mathias Prokop, Benno J Rensing, Maarten J Cramer, H Wouter van Es, Frans L Moll, Eric D van de Pavoordt, Pieter A Doevendans…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:49

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Depression frequently occurs in the elderly. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to disturbances of biological rhythmicity. In both normal aging, and depression, the functioning of the supr...

    Authors: Ritsaert Lieverse, Marjan M A Nielen, Dick J Veltman, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Eus J W van Someren, Jan H Smit and Witte J G Hoogendijk

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:48

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Although interim analysis approaches in clinical trials are widely known, information on current practice of planned monitoring is still scarce. Reports of studies rarely include details on the strategies for ...

    Authors: Irene Floriani, Nicole Rotmensz, Elena Albertazzi, Valter Torri, Marisa De Rosa, Carlo Tomino and Fillipo de Braud

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:46

    Content type: Research

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  4. During clinical trials in emergency medicine, providing appropriate oral and written information to a patient is usually a challenge. There is little published information regarding patients' opinions and comp...

    Authors: Piotr Iwanowski, Andrzej Budaj, Anna Członkowska, Wojciech Wąsek, Beata Kozłowska-Boszko, Urszula Olędzka and Wojciech Masełbas

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:45

    Content type: Research

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  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft...

    Authors: Miguel Sousa Uva, Fernando Matias, Sara Cavaco and Manuel Pedro Magalhães

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:44

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascula...

    Authors: Jean Raymond, Andrew J Molyneux, Allan J Fox, S Claiborne Johnston, Jean-Paul Collet and Isabelle Rouleau

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:43

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optima...

    Authors: Carsten Hjorthøj, Allan Fohlmann, Anne-Mette Larsen, Mette TR Madsen, Lone Vesterager, Christian Gluud, Mikkel C Arendt and Merete Nordentoft

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:42

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Myocardial infarction remains as a major cause of mortality worldwide and a high rate of survivors develop heart failure as a sequel, resulting in a high morbidity and elevated expenditures for health system r...

    Authors: Hans F R Dohmann, Suzana A Silva, André L S Sousa, Alcione M S Braga, Rodrigo V C Branco, Andréa F Haddad, Mônica A Oliveira, Rodrigo C Moreira, Fabio A A Tuche, Cíntia M Peixoto, Bernardo R Tura, Radovan Borojevic, Jorge P Ribeiro, José C Nicolau, Antonio C Nóbrega and Antonio C C Carvalho

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Patients with refractory angina have significant morbidity. This study aimed to compare two of the treatment options, Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) and Percutaneous Myocardial Laser Revascularisation (PMR) in ...

    Authors: M T Dyer, K A Goldsmith, S N Khan, L D Sharples, C Freeman, I Hardy, M J Buxton and P M Schofield

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:40

    Content type: Research

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  10. In spite of numerous guidelines for evidence based diagnostic and therapy adequate knowledge of current recommendations is disappointingly low. In the Hypertension Evaluation Project (HEP I) we showed that awa...

    Authors: Jens Hagemeister, Christian A Schneider, Holger Diedrichs, Diana Mebus, Holger Pfaff, Gernot Wassmer and Hans W Höpp

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:39

    Content type: Research

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  11. Due to its rising prevalence type 2 diabetes plays an important role concerning population health in Austria and other western countries. In various studies deficiencies in the care of diabetic patients have b...

    Authors: Andreas C Sönnichsen, Andreas Rinnerberger, Maria G Url, Henrike Winkler, Peter Kowatsch, Gert Klima, Bernhard Fürthauer and Raimund Weitgasser

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is approved for use in selected patients with ischaemic stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset. IST-3 seeks to determine whether a wider range of pa...

    Authors: Peter Sandercock, Richard Lindley, Joanna Wardlaw, Martin Dennis, Steff Lewis, Graham Venables, Adam Kobayashi, Anna Czlonkowska, Eivind Berge, Karsten Bruins Slot, Veronica Murray, Andre Peeters, Graeme Hankey, Karl Matz, Michael Brainin, Stefano Ricci…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:37

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ven...

    Authors: Bakhtiar Ali, Heather Bloom, Emir Veledar, Dorothy House, Robert Norvel, Samuel C Dudley and A Maziar Zafari

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:36

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. During the last decades, many basic and clinical research have pointed to the role of B vitamins (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and n-3 fatty acids as nutritional factors that might have a protective effect on ...

    Authors: Pilar Galan, Serge Briancon, Jacque Blacher, Sébastien Czernichow and Serge Hercberg

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:35

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Budesonide has a long history as intranasal drug, with many marketed products. Efforts should be made to demonstrate the therapeutic equivalence and safety comparability between them. Given that systemic avail...

    Authors: Jaime Algorta, Maria Angeles Pena, Silvia Francisco, Zurine Abajo and Emilio Sanz

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:34

    Content type: Research

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  16. Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has th...

    Authors: Matthew J Kirby, Paul J Milligan, David J Conway and Steve W Lindsay

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:33

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Postmenopausal women are prone to develop functional disabilities as a result of reduction in muscle strength and muscle mass caused by diminished levels of female sex hormones. While hormone replacement thera...

    Authors: Didy E Jacobsen, Monique M Samson, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Diederick E Grobbee and Harald J J Verhaar

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:32

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. The most effective pharmacological treatments for depression inhibit the transporters that reuptake serotonin (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – SSRIs) and noradrenaline (Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibit...

    Authors: Laura Thomas, Jean Mulligan, Victoria Mason, Debbie Tallon, Nicola Wiles, Philip Cowen, David Nutt, Michael O'Donovan, Deborah Sharp, Tim Peters and Glyn Lewis

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:29

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Patients who have severe narrowing at or near the origin of the internal carotid artery as a result of atherosclerosis have a high risk of ischaemic stroke ipsilateral to the arterial lesion. Previous trials h...

    Authors: Michael J Gough, Andrew Bodenham, Michael Horrocks, Bridget Colam, Steff C Lewis, Peter M Rothwell, Adrian P Banning, David Torgerson, Moira Gough, Demosthenes Dellagrammaticas, Anne Leigh-Brown, Christos Liapis and Charles Warlow

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Its high prevalence in general population and the sev...

    Authors: Alessandra Gorini and Giuseppe Riva

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Smoking remains a major public health problem; developing effective interventions to encourage more quit attempts, and to improve the success rate of self-quit attempts, is essential to reduce the numbers of p...

    Authors: Hazel Gilbert, Irwin Nazareth, Stephen Sutton, Richard Morris and Christine Godfrey

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:23

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. A major barrier to accessing free government-provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South Africa is the shortage of suitably skilled health professionals. Current South African guidelines recommend that on...

    Authors: Lara R Fairall, Max O Bachmann, Merrick F Zwarenstein, Carl J Lombard, Kerry Uebel, Cloete van Vuuren, Dewald Steyn, Andrew Boulle and Eric D Bateman

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. The CONSORT Statement provides recommendations for reporting randomized controlled trials. We assessed the extent to which leading medical journals that publish reports of randomized trials incorporate the CON...

    Authors: Sally Hopewell, Douglas G Altman, David Moher and Kenneth F Schulz

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:20

    Content type: Research

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  24. Bone microarchitecture is a significant determinant of bone strength. So far, the assessment of bone microarchitecture has required bone biopsies, limiting its utilization in clinical practice to one single sk...

    Authors: Laura Richert, Brigitte Uebelhart, Marc Engelhardt, Moise Azria and René Rizzoli

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:19

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Although pacemakers are primarily used for the treatment of bradycardia, diagnostic data available in current pacemakers allow them to be also used as sophisticated, continuous monitoring devices. Easy access ...

    Authors: Jane Chen, Bruce L Wilkoff, Wassim Choucair, Todd J Cohen, George H Crossley, W Ben Johnson, Luc R Mongeon, Gerald A Serwer and Lou Sherfesee

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:18

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Infants born at extreme prematurity (below 28 weeks' gestation) are at high risk of developmental disability. A major risk factor for disability is having a low level of thyroid hormone which is recognised to ...

    Authors: Sze M Ng, Mark A Turner, Carrol Gamble, Mohammed Didi, Suresh Victor and Alan M Weindling

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:17

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating wit...

    Authors: Andrew L Avins, Stephen Bent, Amy Padula, Suzanne Staccone, Evelyn Badua and Harley Goldberg

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:16

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. High blood pressure in patients with stroke increases the risk of recurrence but management in the community is often inadequate. Home blood pressure monitoring may increase patients' involvement in their care...

    Authors: Sally Kerry, Hugh Markus, Teck Khong, Reena Doshi, Rachel Conroy and Pippa Oakeshott

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm a...

    Authors: Denise Kendrick, Jane Stewart, Carol Coupland, Michael Hayes, Nick Hopkins, Debbie McCabe, Robert Murphy, George O'Donnell, Ceri Phillips, David Radford, Jackie Ryan, Sherie Smith, Lindsay Groom and Elizabeth Towner

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:14

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. The neuropsychological arm of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (N-ISAT) evaluated the cognitive outcome of 573 patients at 12 months following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The assessment includ...

    Authors: Richard B Scott, Fiona Eccles, Andrew Lloyd and Katherine Carpenter

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. Symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) appear to be caused by diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, left ventricle (LV) outflow obstruction, and atrial fibrillation. However, clinical deterioration...

    Authors: Fatih Bayrak, Gokhan Kahveci, Muzaffer Degertekin and Bulent Mutlu

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:11

    Content type: Research

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  32. Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek acupuncture treatment. Therefore, an objective assessment of acupuncture efficacy is critical for making informed decisio...

    Authors: Daniel C Cherkin, Karen J Sherman, Charissa J Hogeboom, Janet H Erro, William E Barlow, Richard A Deyo and Andrew L Avins

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:10

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and percutaneous myocardial laser revascularisation (PMR) are treatment modalities used to treat refractory angina pectoris, with the major aim of such treatment being the relief ...

    Authors: Sadia N Khan, Duncan C McNab, Linda D Sharples, Carol J Freeman, Ian Hardy, David L Stone and Peter M Schofield

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:9

    Content type: Research

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  34. Acute Coronary Syndromes account for 15% of deaths in the UK, and patients remain at significant risk of re-admission for future complications and death. Pathologically the underlying process of atherosclerosi...

    Authors: David C Crossman, Allison C Morton, Julian P Gunn, John P Greenwood, Alistair S Hall, Keith AA Fox, Andrew J Lucking, Marcus D Flather, Belinda Lees and Claire E Foley

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:8

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals look to substantial improvements in child and maternal survival. Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery and the postnatal period are prime obstacles ...

    Authors: Neena Shah More, Ujwala Bapat, Sushmita Das, Sarita Patil, Maya Porel, Leena Vaidya, Bhaveshree Koriya, Sarah Barnett, Anthony Costello, Armida Fernandez and David Osrin

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:7

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significa...

    Authors: Rathie Rajendram, Richard WJ Lee, Mike J Potts, Geoff E Rose, Rajni Jain, Jane M Olver, Fion Bremner, Steven Hurel, Anne Cook, Rao Gattamaneni, Marjorie Tomlinson, Nicholas Plowman, Catey Bunce, Sandra P Hollinghurst, Laura Kingston, Sue Jackson…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:6

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Common mental disorders (CMD) are a leading global burden of disease. Up to 30% of primary care attenders suffer from these disorders but most do not receive evidence-based drug or psychological treatments. Th...

    Authors: Vikram H Patel, Betty R Kirkwood, Sulochana Pednekar, Ricardo Araya, Michael King, Daniel Chisholm, Gregory Simon and Helen Weiss

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:4

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Although considered the reference standard for generating valid scientific evidence of a treatment's benefits and harms, the number of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) comparing surgical techniques remains l...

    Authors: Nuh N Rahbari, Markus K Diener, Lars Fischer, Moritz N Wente, Peter Kienle, Markus W Büchler and Christoph M Seiler

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. In some randomized trials successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis is associated with an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay when compared with open cholecystectomy. Other studies did n...

    Authors: Fausto Catena, Luca Ansaloni, Salomone Di Saverio, Filippo Gazzotti, Stefano Gagliardi, Federico Coccolini, Luigi D'Alessandro, Giorgio Ercolani, Carlo Talarico, Uberto A Bassi, Leonardo Leone, Filippo Calzolari and Antonio D Pinna

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Recruiting to trials is complex and difficult. The Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) trial aims to see if screening women for chlamydia and treating those found to be infected reduces the incidence of pelv...

    Authors: Helen Atherton, Debbie Banks, Ruth Harbit, Linzie Long, Fiona Chadd, Phillip Hay, Sally Kerry, Ian Simms and Pippa Oakeshott

    Citation: Trials 2007 8:41

    Content type: Methodology

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