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  1. Following a stroke, 55–75% of patients experience upper limb problems in the longer term. Upper limb spasticity may cause pain, deformity and reduced function, affecting mood and independence. Botulinum toxin ...

    Authors: Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Christopher Price, Frederike van Wijck, Michael Barnes, Laura Graham, Gary Ford, Phil Shackley and Nick Steen

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:59

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction may reduce the risk of surgical site infections, as bacterial eradication by neutrophils depends on wound oxygen tension. Two trials have shown that a high peri...

    Authors: Christian S Meyhoff, Jørn Wetterslev, Lars N Jorgensen, Steen W Henneberg, Inger Simonsen, Therese Pulawska, Line R Walker, Nina Skovgaard, Kim Heltø, Peter Gocht-Jensen, Palle S Carlsson, Henrik Rask, Sharaf Karim, Charlotte G Carlsen, Frank S Jensen and Lars S Rasmussen

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:58

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. The effectiveness of using acupuncture to treat migraine is rarely and even suspectedly reported in the literature. In this article, we report the design and the protocol of a randomized controlled large-scale...

    Authors: Ying Li, Fanrong Liang, Shuguang Yu, Xuguang Liu, Yong Tang, Xuguang Yang, Xiaoping Tian, Jie Yan, Guojie Sun, Xiaorong Chang, Hui Zheng, Hongxing Zhang and Tingting Ma

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:57

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growt...

    Authors: Praveen J Patel, Catey Bunce and Adnan Tufail

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:56

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and when severe is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The principal cause of severe renal failure is cast nephropathy, a d...

    Authors: Colin A Hutchison, Mark Cook, Nils Heyne, Katja Weisel, Lucinda Billingham, Arthur Bradwell and Paul Cockwell

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:55

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular fu...

    Authors: Whady Hueb, Neuza H M Lopes, Bernard J Gersh, Cláudio C Castro, Felipe S Paulitsch, Sergio A Oliveira, Luis A Dallan, Alexandre C Hueb, Noedir A Stolf and José A F Ramires

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:52

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are perceived as the gold-standard method for evaluating healthcare interventions, and increasingly include quality of life (QoL) measures. The observed results are suscepti...

    Authors: Shona Fielding, Graeme Maclennan, Jonathan A Cook and Craig R Ramsay

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:51

    Content type: Research

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  8. Point of care testing (PoCT) may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP). The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enha...

    Authors: Caroline Laurence, Angela Gialamas, Lisa Yelland, Tanya Bubner, Philip Ryan, Kristyn Willson, Briony Glastonbury, Janice Gill, Mark Shephard and Justin Beilby

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:50

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Scree...

    Authors: Alexander M de Vos, Annemarieke Rutten, Hester J van de Zaag-Loonen, Michiel L Bots, Riksta Dikkers, Robert A Buiskool, Willem P Mali, Daniel D Lubbers, Arend Mosterd, Mathias Prokop, Benno J Rensing, Maarten J Cramer, H Wouter van Es, Frans L Moll, Eric D van de Pavoordt, Pieter A Doevendans…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:49

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Depression frequently occurs in the elderly. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to disturbances of biological rhythmicity. In both normal aging, and depression, the functioning of the supr...

    Authors: Ritsaert Lieverse, Marjan M A Nielen, Dick J Veltman, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Eus J W van Someren, Jan H Smit and Witte J G Hoogendijk

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:48

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Although interim analysis approaches in clinical trials are widely known, information on current practice of planned monitoring is still scarce. Reports of studies rarely include details on the strategies for ...

    Authors: Irene Floriani, Nicole Rotmensz, Elena Albertazzi, Valter Torri, Marisa De Rosa, Carlo Tomino and Fillipo de Braud

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:46

    Content type: Research

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  12. During clinical trials in emergency medicine, providing appropriate oral and written information to a patient is usually a challenge. There is little published information regarding patients' opinions and comp...

    Authors: Piotr Iwanowski, Andrzej Budaj, Anna Członkowska, Wojciech Wąsek, Beata Kozłowska-Boszko, Urszula Olędzka and Wojciech Masełbas

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:45

    Content type: Research

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  13. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting has been accused of possibly compromising graft patency. Sixteen slice computed tomography has shown good diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of coronary bypass graft...

    Authors: Miguel Sousa Uva, Fernando Matias, Sara Cavaco and Manuel Pedro Magalhães

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:44

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascula...

    Authors: Jean Raymond, Andrew J Molyneux, Allan J Fox, S Claiborne Johnston, Jean-Paul Collet and Isabelle Rouleau

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:43

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optima...

    Authors: Carsten Hjorthøj, Allan Fohlmann, Anne-Mette Larsen, Mette TR Madsen, Lone Vesterager, Christian Gluud, Mikkel C Arendt and Merete Nordentoft

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:42

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Myocardial infarction remains as a major cause of mortality worldwide and a high rate of survivors develop heart failure as a sequel, resulting in a high morbidity and elevated expenditures for health system r...

    Authors: Hans F R Dohmann, Suzana A Silva, André L S Sousa, Alcione M S Braga, Rodrigo V C Branco, Andréa F Haddad, Mônica A Oliveira, Rodrigo C Moreira, Fabio A A Tuche, Cíntia M Peixoto, Bernardo R Tura, Radovan Borojevic, Jorge P Ribeiro, José C Nicolau, Antonio C Nóbrega and Antonio C C Carvalho

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Patients with refractory angina have significant morbidity. This study aimed to compare two of the treatment options, Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) and Percutaneous Myocardial Laser Revascularisation (PMR) in ...

    Authors: M T Dyer, K A Goldsmith, S N Khan, L D Sharples, C Freeman, I Hardy, M J Buxton and P M Schofield

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:40

    Content type: Research

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  18. In spite of numerous guidelines for evidence based diagnostic and therapy adequate knowledge of current recommendations is disappointingly low. In the Hypertension Evaluation Project (HEP I) we showed that awa...

    Authors: Jens Hagemeister, Christian A Schneider, Holger Diedrichs, Diana Mebus, Holger Pfaff, Gernot Wassmer and Hans W Höpp

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:39

    Content type: Research

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  19. Due to its rising prevalence type 2 diabetes plays an important role concerning population health in Austria and other western countries. In various studies deficiencies in the care of diabetic patients have b...

    Authors: Andreas C Sönnichsen, Andreas Rinnerberger, Maria G Url, Henrike Winkler, Peter Kowatsch, Gert Klima, Bernhard Fürthauer and Raimund Weitgasser

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is approved for use in selected patients with ischaemic stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset. IST-3 seeks to determine whether a wider range of pa...

    Authors: Peter Sandercock, Richard Lindley, Joanna Wardlaw, Martin Dennis, Steff Lewis, Graham Venables, Adam Kobayashi, Anna Czlonkowska, Eivind Berge, Karsten Bruins Slot, Veronica Murray, Andre Peeters, Graeme Hankey, Karl Matz, Michael Brainin, Stefano Ricci…

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:37

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ven...

    Authors: Bakhtiar Ali, Heather Bloom, Emir Veledar, Dorothy House, Robert Norvel, Samuel C Dudley and A Maziar Zafari

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:36

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. During the last decades, many basic and clinical research have pointed to the role of B vitamins (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and n-3 fatty acids as nutritional factors that might have a protective effect on ...

    Authors: Pilar Galan, Serge Briancon, Jacque Blacher, Sébastien Czernichow and Serge Hercberg

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:35

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Budesonide has a long history as intranasal drug, with many marketed products. Efforts should be made to demonstrate the therapeutic equivalence and safety comparability between them. Given that systemic avail...

    Authors: Jaime Algorta, Maria Angeles Pena, Silvia Francisco, Zurine Abajo and Emilio Sanz

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:34

    Content type: Research

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  24. Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has th...

    Authors: Matthew J Kirby, Paul J Milligan, David J Conway and Steve W Lindsay

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:33

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Postmenopausal women are prone to develop functional disabilities as a result of reduction in muscle strength and muscle mass caused by diminished levels of female sex hormones. While hormone replacement thera...

    Authors: Didy E Jacobsen, Monique M Samson, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Diederick E Grobbee and Harald J J Verhaar

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:32

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. The most effective pharmacological treatments for depression inhibit the transporters that reuptake serotonin (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – SSRIs) and noradrenaline (Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibit...

    Authors: Laura Thomas, Jean Mulligan, Victoria Mason, Debbie Tallon, Nicola Wiles, Philip Cowen, David Nutt, Michael O'Donovan, Deborah Sharp, Tim Peters and Glyn Lewis

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:29

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Patients who have severe narrowing at or near the origin of the internal carotid artery as a result of atherosclerosis have a high risk of ischaemic stroke ipsilateral to the arterial lesion. Previous trials h...

    Authors: Michael J Gough, Andrew Bodenham, Michael Horrocks, Bridget Colam, Steff C Lewis, Peter M Rothwell, Adrian P Banning, David Torgerson, Moira Gough, Demosthenes Dellagrammaticas, Anne Leigh-Brown, Christos Liapis and Charles Warlow

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Its high prevalence in general population and the sev...

    Authors: Alessandra Gorini and Giuseppe Riva

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:25

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Smoking remains a major public health problem; developing effective interventions to encourage more quit attempts, and to improve the success rate of self-quit attempts, is essential to reduce the numbers of p...

    Authors: Hazel Gilbert, Irwin Nazareth, Stephen Sutton, Richard Morris and Christine Godfrey

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:23

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. A major barrier to accessing free government-provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South Africa is the shortage of suitably skilled health professionals. Current South African guidelines recommend that on...

    Authors: Lara R Fairall, Max O Bachmann, Merrick F Zwarenstein, Carl J Lombard, Kerry Uebel, Cloete van Vuuren, Dewald Steyn, Andrew Boulle and Eric D Bateman

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. The CONSORT Statement provides recommendations for reporting randomized controlled trials. We assessed the extent to which leading medical journals that publish reports of randomized trials incorporate the CON...

    Authors: Sally Hopewell, Douglas G Altman, David Moher and Kenneth F Schulz

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:20

    Content type: Research

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  32. Bone microarchitecture is a significant determinant of bone strength. So far, the assessment of bone microarchitecture has required bone biopsies, limiting its utilization in clinical practice to one single sk...

    Authors: Laura Richert, Brigitte Uebelhart, Marc Engelhardt, Moise Azria and René Rizzoli

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:19

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Although pacemakers are primarily used for the treatment of bradycardia, diagnostic data available in current pacemakers allow them to be also used as sophisticated, continuous monitoring devices. Easy access ...

    Authors: Jane Chen, Bruce L Wilkoff, Wassim Choucair, Todd J Cohen, George H Crossley, W Ben Johnson, Luc R Mongeon, Gerald A Serwer and Lou Sherfesee

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:18

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Infants born at extreme prematurity (below 28 weeks' gestation) are at high risk of developmental disability. A major risk factor for disability is having a low level of thyroid hormone which is recognised to ...

    Authors: Sze M Ng, Mark A Turner, Carrol Gamble, Mohammed Didi, Suresh Victor and Alan M Weindling

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:17

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating wit...

    Authors: Andrew L Avins, Stephen Bent, Amy Padula, Suzanne Staccone, Evelyn Badua and Harley Goldberg

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:16

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. High blood pressure in patients with stroke increases the risk of recurrence but management in the community is often inadequate. Home blood pressure monitoring may increase patients' involvement in their care...

    Authors: Sally Kerry, Hugh Markus, Teck Khong, Reena Doshi, Rachel Conroy and Pippa Oakeshott

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm a...

    Authors: Denise Kendrick, Jane Stewart, Carol Coupland, Michael Hayes, Nick Hopkins, Debbie McCabe, Robert Murphy, George O'Donnell, Ceri Phillips, David Radford, Jackie Ryan, Sherie Smith, Lindsay Groom and Elizabeth Towner

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:14

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. The neuropsychological arm of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (N-ISAT) evaluated the cognitive outcome of 573 patients at 12 months following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The assessment includ...

    Authors: Richard B Scott, Fiona Eccles, Andrew Lloyd and Katherine Carpenter

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:13

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  39. Symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) appear to be caused by diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, left ventricle (LV) outflow obstruction, and atrial fibrillation. However, clinical deterioration...

    Authors: Fatih Bayrak, Gokhan Kahveci, Muzaffer Degertekin and Bulent Mutlu

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:11

    Content type: Research

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  40. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and percutaneous myocardial laser revascularisation (PMR) are treatment modalities used to treat refractory angina pectoris, with the major aim of such treatment being the relief ...

    Authors: Sadia N Khan, Duncan C McNab, Linda D Sharples, Carol J Freeman, Ian Hardy, David L Stone and Peter M Schofield

    Citation: Trials 2008 9:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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