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  1. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is the current standard treatment for stage II/III rectal cancer. However, radiotherapy in the pelvic area is commonly associ...

    Authors: Jii Bum Lee, Han Sang Kim, Inkyung Jung, Sang Joon Shin, Seung Hoon Beom, Jee Suk Chang, Woong Sub Koom, Tae Il Kim, Hyuk Hur, Byung Soh Min, Nam Kyu Kim, Sohee Park, Seung-Yong Jeong, Jeong-Heum Baek, Seon Hahn Kim, Joon Seok Lim…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:320

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  2. Despite the high prevalence of comorbid chronic pain and depression, this comorbidity remains understudied. Meditation has demonstrated efficacy for both chronic pain and depression independently, yet there ha...

    Authors: Abhimanyu Sud, Michelle L. A. Nelson, Darren K. Cheng, Alana Armas, Kirk Foat, Michelle Greiver, Fardous Hosseiny, Joel Katz, Rahim Moineddin, Benoit H. Mulsant, Ronnie I. Newman, Leon Rivlin, Akshya Vasudev and Ross Upshur

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:319

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Late preterm infants suffer from more complications and are less likely to be breastfed compared to term infants and their mothers experience higher levels of stress than mothers with term infants. The physiol...

    Authors: Sarah Dib, Jonathan C. K. Wells and Mary Fewtrell

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:318

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Following the publication of our article [1], we have become aware of one error in the exclusion criteria, inconsistencies in Figure 1 and Figure 2, and a typo in the reference list.

    Authors: Silje Haukenes Stavestrand, Kristine Sirevåg, Inger Hilde Nordhus, Trond Sjøbø, Trygve Bruun Endal, Hans M. Nordahl, Karsten Specht, Åsa Hammar, Anne Halmøy, Egil W. Martinsen, Eva Andersson, Helene Hjelmervik, Jan Mohlman, Julian F. Thayer and Anders Hovland

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:317

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:174

  5. Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is the most commonly performed breast reconstruction technique worldwide but the technique is evolving rapidly. High-quality evidence is needed to support practice. R...

    Authors: Gareth Davies, Nicola Mills, Chris Holcombe and Shelley Potter

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:316

    Content type: Research

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  6. The logrank test is routinely applied to design and analyse randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with time-to-event outcomes. Sample size and power calculations assume the treatment effect follows proportional ...

    Authors: Patrick Royston and Mahesh K. B. Parmar

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:315

    Content type: Methodology

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  7. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, predominantly affecting joints, which is initially treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). ...

    Authors: Matthijs S. van der Leeuw, Paco M. J. Welsing, Maria J. H. de Hair, Johannes W. G. Jacobs, Anne C. A. Marijnissen, Suzanne P. Linn-Rasker, Faouzia Fodili, Reinhard Bos, Janneke Tekstra and Jacob M. van Laar

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:313

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Depression is a debilitating and costly disease for our society, especially in the case of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant the...

    Authors: Samuel Bulteau, Andrew Laurin, Christelle Volteau, Cécile Dert, Lydie Lagalice, Solène Schirr-Bonnans, Nicolas Bukowski, Marie Guitteny, Luc Simons, Clémence Cabelguen, Anne Pichot, Fabienne Tessier, Annabelle Bonnin, Adeline Lepage, Jean-Marie Vanelle, Anne Sauvaget…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:312

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Epidemiological studies conducted in various parts of the world have clearly demonstrated that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasing global health problem, not only in Western societies but also in Asian ...

    Authors: Maryam Hannah Daud, Anis Safura Ramli, Suraya Abdul-Razak, Mohamad Rodi Isa, Fakhrul Hazman Yusoff, Noorhida Baharudin, Mohamed Syarif Mohamed-Yassin, Siti Fatimah Badlishah-Sham, Azlina Wati Nikmat, Nursuriati Jamil and Hapizah Mohd-Nawawi

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:311

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Emergence delirium, a manifestation of acute postoperative brain dysfunction, is frequently observed after pediatric anesthesia and has been associated with the use of sevoflurane. Both xenon and dexmedetomidi...

    Authors: Sarah Devroe, Lisa Devriese, Frederik Debuck, Steffen Fieuws, Bjorn Cools, Marc Gewillig, Marc Van de Velde and Steffen Rex

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:310

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Comprehensive rehabilitation therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied in various cancer treatments in China. Thus far, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been shown effective ...

    Authors: Jialin Yao, Lijing Jiao, Yiqing Yao, Yan Lu, Jun Shi, Jiaqi Li, Peiqi Chen, Ling Xu and Yabin Gong

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:309

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the gold standard study design to inform decisions about the effectiveness of interventions. However, a common limitation is inadequate reporting of the appl...

    Authors: Jennifer Petkovic, Janet Jull, Manosila Yoganathan, Omar Dewidar, Sarah Baird, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Kjell Arne Johansson, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Jessie McGowan, David Moher, Mark Petticrew, Bjarne Robberstad, Beverley Shea, Peter Tugwell, Jimmy Volmink, George A. Wells…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:308

    Content type: Research

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  13. Interstitial lung diseases in children (chILD) are rare and consist of many different entities that affect the parenchyma of the lungs, leading to a chronic lung disease. The natural course of many of these di...

    Authors: Matthias Griese, Meike Köhler, Sabine Witt, Daniela Sebah, Matthias Kappler, Martin Wetzke, Nicolaus Schwerk, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Nural Kiper, Kai Kronfeld, Christian Ruckes, Hans Rock, Gisela Anthony and Elias Seidl

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:307

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Data from meta-analysis suggest that robotic radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) is a safe and effective procedure for treating adenocarcinoma in the body or tail of the pancreas, and is onc...

    Authors: Gong Zhang, Yuhao Kang, Haifeng Zhang, Fei Wang and Rong Liu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:306

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  15. Insomnia is a common sleep disorder for adults with depression, with major impact on their quality of life. Previous trials suggest that listening to music may be helpful in the treatment of sleep disturbances...

    Authors: Helle Nystrup Lund, Inge Nygaard Pedersen, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Agnieszka M. Heymann-Szlachcinska, Maryla Tuszewska, Gustav Bizik, Jens Ivar Larsen, Eszter Kulhay, Anelia Larsen, Bettina Grønbech, Helle Østermark, Heidi Borup, Jan Brink Valentin and Jan Mainz

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:305

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Recruitment and retention of participants in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is a key determinant of success but is challenging. Trialists and UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) Clinical Trials Uni...

    Authors: Amanda Blatch-Jones, Jacqueline Nuttall, Abby Bull, Louise Worswick, Mark Mullee, Robert Peveler, Stephen Falk, Neil Tape, Jeremy Hinks, Athene J. Lane, Jeremy C. Wyatt and Gareth Griffiths

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:304

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Several publications have addressed the need for a systematic integration of oncological care focused on the tumor and palliative care (PC) focused on the patient with cancer. The exponential increase in antic...

    Authors: Marianne Jensen Hjermstad, Nina Aass, Sigve Andersen, Cinzia Brunelli, Olav Dajani, Herish Garresori, Hanne Hamre, Ellinor C. Haukland, Mats Holmberg, Frode Jordal, Hilde Krogstad, Tonje Lundeby, Erik Torbjørn Løhre, Svein Mjåland, Arve Nordbø, Ørnulf Paulsen…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:303

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is offered to all patients with a psychosis diagnosis. However, only a minority of ...

    Authors: Mark Hayward, Clio Berry, Ben Cameron, Kate Arnold, Katherine Berry, Stephen Bremner, Kate Cavanagh, David Fowler, Heather Gage, Kathryn Greenwood, Cassie Hazell, Anna-Marie Jones, Sam Robertson and Clara Strauss

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:302

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Clinical studies looking at interventions to optimize pregnancy and long-term outcomes for women with cardiac disease and their babies are inconsistent in their reporting of clinical outcomes, making it diffic...

    Authors: Rohan D’Souza, Chelsea Hall, Mathew Sermer, Samuel Siu and Candice Silversides

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:300

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Plaque psoriasis is a refractory inflammatory skin disease. The common therapies used to treat plaque psoriasis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine (WM) have distinct characteristics and...

    Authors: Xiaoying Sun, Xiaoyong Zhou, Yuegang Wei, Wenxin Yang, Ning Huang, Yangfeng Ding, Rongyi Hu, Shun Guo, Chunyan Yang, Huilan Weng, Ying Zhang, Xi Chen, Xiaojie Ding, Liu Liu, Qingfeng Yin, Ruiping Wang…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:299

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  21. MET-deregulated non-small cell lung cancer represents an urgent clinical need because of the lack of specific therapies. Although recent studies have suggested a potential role for crizotinib in patients harbo...

    Authors: Mototsugu Shimokawa, Kaname Nosaki, Takashi Seto, Kadoaki Ohashi, Masahiro Morise, Hidehito Horinouchi, Jun Sakakibara, Haruyasu Murakami, Seiji Yano, Miyako Satouchi, Shingo Matsumoto, Koichi Goto and Kiyotaka Yoh

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:298

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  22. After publication of our article [1] we have been notified on a mistake in the sample size.

    Authors: Ling Zhu, Xiao Shi, Suqing Yin, Jiemin Yin, Ziyu Zhu, Xiong Gao, Yingfu Jiao, Weifeng Yu and Liqun Yang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:297

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:260

  23. After publication of our article [1] the authors have notified us of two typos in the Trial status.

    Authors: Yuqin Chen, Wenjun He, Haiping Ouyang, Chunli Liu, Cheng Hong, Tao Wang, Kai Yang, Wenju Lu and Jian Wang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:296

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:725

  24. Women with breast cancer experience a significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbance and insomnia than the general population. The experience of persistent sleep disturbance places these women at a highe...

    Authors: Helena R. Bean, Lesley Stafford, Ruth Little, Justine Diggens, Maria Ftanou, Marliese Alexander, Prudence A. Francis, Bei Bei and Joshua F. Wiley

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:295

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with life-long medical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. Although long-lasting disabilities are expected, research on effective treatment options i...

    Authors: Ida Maria H. Borgen, Marianne Løvstad, Nada Andelic, Solveig Hauger, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Helene L. Søberg, Unni Sveen, Marit V. Forslund, Ingerid Kleffelgård, Marte Ørud Lindstad, Laraine Winter and Cecilie Røe

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:294

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery are frequent despite progress in surgical technique and perioperative care. Early and enhanced postoperative mobilisation has been advocated to red...

    Authors: Marius Schwab, Niall Brindl, Alexander Studier-Fischer, Thomas Tu, Julia Gsenger, Max Pilgrim, Mirco Friedrich, Pia-Elena Frey, Christina Achilles, Alexander Leuck, Thore Bürgel, Manuel Feisst, Christina Klose, Solveig Tenckhoff, Colette Dörr-Harim and André L. Mihaljevic

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:293

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Non-communicable chronic diseases are linked to behavioral risk factors (including smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity), so effective behavior change interventions are needed to improve population healt...

    Authors: Molly Byrne, Jenny McSharry, Oonagh Meade, Kim L. Lavoie and Simon L. Bacon

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:292

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. We report the first protocol for a multicenter, randomized comparison study to compare the efficacies of periodontal scaling and root-planing treatment against that of tooth-brushing treatment for nonalcoholic...

    Authors: Yohei Kamata, Takaomi Kessoku, Tomoko Shimizu, Takashi Kobayashi, Takeo Kurihashi, Satsuki Sato, Syotaro Kuraji, Norio Aoyama, Tomoyuki Iwasaki, Shogo Takashiba, Nobushiro Hamada, Toshiro Kodama, Toshiyuki Tamura, Satoshi Ino, Takuma Higurashi, Masataka Taguri…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:291

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Mindfulness has been applied to improve cancer care by enhancing psychological well-being. However, little is known about its impact on cognitive impairment experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy. M...

    Authors: Katleen Van der Gucht, Michelle Melis, Soumaya Ahmadoun, Anneleen Gebruers, Ann Smeets, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Hans Wildiers, Patrick Neven, Peter Kuppens, Filip Raes, Stefan Sunaert and Sabine Deprez

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:290

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  30. Pragmatic trials provide the opportunity to study the effectiveness of health interventions to improve care in real-world settings. However, use of open-cohort designs with patients becoming eligible after ran...

    Authors: Jennifer F. Bobb, Hongxiang Qiu, Abigail G. Matthews, Jennifer McCormack and Katharine A. Bradley

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:289

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. A noticeable interest in ketamine infusion for sedation management has developed among critical care physicians for critically ill patients. The 2018 Pain, Agitation/sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep d...

    Authors: Mohammed Bawazeer, Marwa Amer, Khalid Maghrabi, Kamel Alshaikh, Rashid Amin, Muhammad Rizwan, Mohammad Shaban, Edward De Vol and Mohammed Hijazi

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:288

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become a common cardiovascular disease that seriously threatens the health of people. As reperfusion in the early phase and drug therapy, especially percutaneous coronary inter...

    Authors: Yongxia Wang, Xinlu Wang, Jianru Wang, Bin Li, Rui Yu, Yucai Hu, Xingyuan Li, Guangcao Peng, Mengmeng Zhang and Mingjun Zhu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:287

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. Generalisability is typically only briefly mentioned in discussion sections of evaluation articles, which are unhelpful in judging whether an intervention could be implemented elsewhere, with similar effects. ...

    Authors: Helen E. D. Burchett, Dylan Kneale, Laurence Blanchard and James Thomas

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:286

    Content type: Commentary

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  34. Frailty in elderly patients is associated with an increased risk of poor health outcomes, including falls, delirium, malnutrition, hospitalisation, and mortality. Because polypharmacy is recognised as a possib...

    Authors: Achim Mortsiefer, Stefan Wilm, Sara Santos, Susanne Löscher, Anja Wollny, Eva Drewelow, Manuela Ritzke, Petra Thürmann, Nina-Kristin Mann, Gabriele Meyer, Jens Abraham, Andrea Icks, Joseph Montalbo, Birgitt Wiese and Attila Altiner

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:285

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. After publication of our article [1] the authors have notified us that three of the names have been incorrectly spelled.

    Authors: Litza Kiropoulos, Trevor Kilpatrick, Tomas Kalincik, Leonid Churilov, Elizabeth McDonald, Tissa Wijeratne, Jennifer Threader, Vanja Rozenblat, Neil O’Brien-Simpson, Anneke Van Der Walt and Lisa Taylor

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:284

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:100

  36. A large proportion of Syrians have been exposed to potentially traumatic events, multiple losses, and breakdown of supportive social networks and many of them have sought refuge in host countries where they al...

    Authors: Ersin Uygun, Zeynep Ilkkursun, Marit Sijbrandij, A. Tamer Aker, Richard Bryant, Pim Cuijpers, Daniela C. Fuhr, Anne M. de Graaff, Joop de Jong, David McDaid, Naser Morina, A-La Park, Bayard Roberts, Peter Ventevogel, Taylan Yurtbakan and Ceren Acarturk

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:283

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. After publication of our article [1], the authors have reported mathematical errors made in the sample size calculation for this cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) (Benzies et al. 2017).

    Authors: Karen M. Benzies, Vibhuti Shah, Khalid Aziz, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Luz Palacio-Derflingher, Jeanne Scotland, Jill Larocque, Kelly Mrklas, Esther Suter, Christopher Naugler, Henry T. Stelfox, Radha Chari and Abhay Lodha

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:282

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2017 18:467

  38. Recommendations for good clinical practice have been reported to be difficult to apply in real life by primary care clinicians. This could be because the clinical trials at the origin of the guidelines are bas...

    Authors: Isabelle Ettori-Ajasse, Elise Tatin, Gordon Forbes, Sandra Eldridge and Clarisse Dibao-Dina

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:281

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Globally, about 15% of newborns are born with a low birth weight (LBW) as a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth restriction or both. Up to 70% of neonatal deaths occur in this group within the first...

    Authors:

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:280

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  40. Myopia is increasing in prevalence and is currently recognized as a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in China. Once myopia develops, appropriate clinical interventions need to be prescri...

    Authors: Yan Li, Yafei Fu, Kai Wang, Zhiming Liu, Xiaoqing Shi and Mingwei Zhao

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:279

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. As a lifetime disorder, ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects quality of life and also demands long-term interventions. In spite of considerable side effects and sometimes...

    Authors: Forough Shayesteh, Fatemeh Haidari, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Javad Mohammadi-Asl and Kambiz Ahmadi-Angali

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:278

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. There is evidence that chronic stress negatively impacts parenting among refugees and other war-affected communities. Persistent parental stress and distress may lead to unresponsive, anxious, or overly harsh ...

    Authors: Kenneth E. Miller, Maguy Arnous, Fadila Tossyeh, Alexandra Chen, Ioannis Bakolis, Gabriela V. Koppenol-Gonzalez, Nayla Nahas and Mark J. D. Jordans

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:277

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  43. Psychotherapy is highly effective and widely acknowledged for treating various mental disorders. Nevertheless, in terms of methods for teaching effective psychotherapeutic approaches and competencies, there ha...

    Authors: Franziska Kühne, Peter Eric Heinze and Florian Weck

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:276

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. The German guideline on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental disorders recommends a broad spectrum of evidence-based treatments. Structured implementation of the associated patient version ...

    Authors: Johanna Breilmann, Reinhold Kilian, Steffi G. Riedel-Heller, Uta Gühne, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai, Andreas Allgöwer, Rainer Muche, Thomas Becker, Klemens Ajayi, Peter Brieger, Karel Frasch, Stephan Heres, Markus Jäger, Andreas Küthmann, Albert Putzhammer…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:275

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. Acute respiratory distress syndrome continues to drive significant morbidity and mortality after severe trauma. The incidence of trauma-induced, moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia, according to the Berlin definitio...

    Authors: Julien Pottecher, Eric Noll, Marie Borel, Gérard Audibert, Sébastien Gette, Christian Meyer, Elisabeth Gaertner, Vincent Legros, Raphaël Carapito, Béatrice Uring-Lambert, Erik Sauleau, Walter G. Land, Seiamak Bahram, Alain Meyer, Bernard Geny and Pierre Diemunsch

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:274

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. After publication of our article [1], the database of IRON-CKD has undergone vigorous inspection – the authors have therefore re-examined database.

    Authors: Ahmed Ziedan, Xenophon Kassianides and Sunil Bhandari

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:273

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:194

  47. Following the publication of our article [1], the authors have notified us of a typo in the third bullet point of the Consensus Criteria section.

    Authors: Roulla Katiri, Deborah A. Hall, Nora Buggy, Nicholas Hogan, Adele Horobin, Paul van de Heyning, Jill B. Firszt, Iain A. Bruce and Pádraig T. Kitterick

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:272

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:238

  48. Low back pain is a common reason for medical care and carries a heavy social burden. The efficacy of Tuina or health care education for low back pain has been evaluated in previous systematic reviews. However,...

    Authors: Shuaipan Zhang, Lingjun Kong, Qingguang Zhu, Zhiwei Wu, Jianhua Li, Min Fang, Wuquan Sun, Yanbin Cheng, Shanda Xu, Guangxin Guo, Xin Zhou and Zhizhen Lv

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:271

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Cognitive difficulties experienced by people with multiple sclerosis (MS) impact their quality of life and daily functioning, from childcare and work, to social and self-care activities. Despite the high preva...

    Authors: Christopher P. Dwyer, Alberto Alvarez-Iglesias, Robert Joyce, Timothy J. Counihan, Dympna Casey and Sinéad M. Hynes

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:269

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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