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  1. The loss of functional ability of patients after stroke is mostly caused by dysfunction of the upper limbs, especially the hands. Hand functional exercise is the premise of alleviating hand dysfunction, and th...

    Authors: Zeng-Qiao Zhang, Kun-Peng Li, Jing He, Li-Ming Jiang, Wu Wang, Xiao-Shen Hu and Wei Feng

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:69

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that fail to meet their recruitment target risk increasing research waste. Acute stroke RCTs experience notable recruitment issues. The efficiency of recruitment to stroke r...

    Authors: Kris McGill, Catherine M. Sackley, Jon Godwin, Jodie McGarry and Marian C. Brady

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:68

    Content type: Review

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  3. Equipoise and role conflict have been previously identified as important factors in professionals’ engagement with trials, inducing behaviours which can impact on recruitment. We explored these phenomena as po...

    Authors: Ruth I. Hart, Nina Hallowell, Jeni Harden, Angela B. Jesudason and Julia Lawton

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:67

    Content type: Research

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  4. Obesity is a highly prevalent condition with multiple adverse health consequences. Widely available first-line treatments for obesity, such as dietary and other lifestyle interventions, typically have only sho...

    Authors: Daniela Mercado, Jessica Werthmann, Iain C. Campbell and Ulrike Schmidt

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:66

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) have been shown to be an efficient and effective strategy for providing diabetes self-management education and self-management support. SMA features vary and it is not known ...

    Authors: Bethany M. Kwan, L. Miriam Dickinson, Russell E. Glasgow, Martha Sajatovic, Mark Gritz, Jodi Summers Holtrop, Don E. Nease Jr., Natalie Ritchie, Andrea Nederveld, Dennis Gurfinkel and Jeanette A. Waxmonsky

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:65

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:195

  6. Depression is a major public health concern. E-health interventions for preventing and reducing depressive complaints have proven to be effective, and have the potential to make (mental) health care more acces...

    Authors: Stephanie S. Leone, Suzanne Lokman, Brigitte Boon, Agnes van der Poel, Filip Smit, Moniek Zijlstra-Vlasveld and Odile Smeets

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:64

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. In 2015, 162,877 persons sought asylum in Sweden, 35,369 of whom were unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs). Refugee children, especially URMs, have often experienced traumas and are at significant risk of devel...

    Authors: Anna Sarkadi, Georgina Warner, Raziye Salari, Karin Fängström, Natalie Durbeej, Elin Lampa, Zaruhi Baghdasaryan, Fatumo Osman, Sandra Gupta Löfving, Anna Perez Aronsson, Inna Feldman, Filipa Sampaio, Richard Ssegonja, Rachel Calam, Anna Bjärtå, Anna Leiler…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:63

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Organ preservation before transplantation is still a challenge. Both the University of Wisconsin and Bretschneider’s histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK; Custodiol®) solution are standard for liver, kidney...

    Authors: Daniela Kniepeiss, Philipp Houben, Philipp Stiegler, Andrea Berghold, Regina Riedl, Judith Kahn and Peter Schemmer

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:62

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. In people living with limb loss, addressing the resulting functional deficit with prostheses increases the risk for secondary conditions such as pressure sores, impaired blood perfusion, and injuries from acci...

    Authors: Goeran Fiedler, Anita Singh and Xueyi Zhang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:61

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Ketogenic and low-glycemic-index diets are effective in treating drug-resistant seizures in children with Angelman syndrome. Cognition, mobility, sleep, and gastrointestinal health are intrinsically linked to ...

    Authors: Donna L. Herber, Edwin J. Weeber, Dominic P. D’Agostino and Jessica Duis

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:60

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Hong Kong. Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is a major first-line conventional therapy for advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer. However, oxaliplatin causes ch...

    Authors: Kaiyin Chan, Louisa Lui, Kaling Yu, Kwongwai Lau, Manchi Lai, Waiwai Lau, Bacon Ng, Linda L. D. Zhong and Zhao-Xiang Bian

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:58

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Asylum seekers and refugees are at great risk for developing mental disorders. Afghan refugees are a particularly vulnerable group with a low average education and mental health literacy level. Traumatic exper...

    Authors: Matthias Knefel, Viktoria Kantor, Andrew A. Nicholson, Jennifer Schiess-Jokanovic, Dina Weindl, Ingo Schäfer and Brigitte Lueger-Schuster

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:57

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at presc...

    Authors: Katja Becker, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Christina Dose, Christopher Hautmann, Martin Holtmann, Thomas Jans, Lea Jendreizik, Carolin Jenkner, Katja John, Johanna Ketter, Sabina Millenet, Ursula Pauli-Pott, Tobias Renner, Marcel Romanos, Anne-Katrin Treier…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:56

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most common complications of neuraxial anaesthesia. It limits patients’ general activity and increases the length of hospital stays and the use of care. It is ...

    Authors: Célia Depaulis, Nadia Steer, Léa Garessus, Dominique Chassard and Frédéric Aubrun

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:55

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Few studies have addressed the appropriate duration of antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections (DFI) with or without amputation. We will perform two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to reduce the anti...

    Authors: Felix Waibel, Martin Berli, Sabrina Catanzaro, Kati Sairanen, Madlaina Schöni, Thomas Böni, Jan Burkhard, Dominique Holy, Tanja Huber, Maik Bertram, Karin Läubli, Dario Frustaci, Andrea Rosskopf, Sander Botter and Ilker Uçkay

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:54

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is emerging as a reliable and valid clinical tool that impacts diagnosis and clinical decision-making as well as timely intervention for optimal patient management. This makes ...

    Authors: Ximena Cid, David Canty, Alistair Royse, Andrea B. Maier, Douglas Johnson, Doa El-Ansary, Sandy Clarke-Errey, Timothy Fazio and Colin Royse

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:53

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Improving the health and development of adolescents aged 10–19 years is a global health priority. One in five adolescents globally live in India. The Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK), India’s national a...

    Authors: Suchitra Rath, Audrey Prost, Subhashree Samal, Hemanta Pradhan, Andrew Copas, Sumitra Gagrai, Shibanand Rath, Raj Kumar Gope, Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, Komal Bhatia and Kelly Rose-Clarke

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:52

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Labor is induced in over 20% of women in France. Prostaglandins, especially intravaginal dinoprostone (Propess®), are widely used to initiate cervical ripening. If labor does not start within 24 h, there is un...

    Authors: P. Coste Mazeau, M. Hessas, R. Martin, J.-L. Eyraud, F. Margueritte, Y. Aubard, C. Sallee, F. Sire and T. Gauthier

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:51

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. School-based comprehensive sexual health education can improve adolescent health outcomes, and web-based programs are a promising approach to overcoming challenges associated with teacher-led formats by ensuri...

    Authors: Tracy M. Scull, Christina V. Malik, Abigail Morrison and Elyse M. Keefe

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:50

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the change in cerebral blood flow in response to a vaso-active stimulus, and may assist the treatment strategy of ischemic stroke. However, previous studies reported that a ...

    Authors: Zhi-peng Xiao, ke Jin, Jie-qing Wan, Yong Lin, Yao-hua Pan, Yi-chao Jin and Xiao-hua Zhang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:49

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. No treatment has convincingly been proven to be beneficial for microvascular obstruction (MVO) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several studies have described the effects of Danhong...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Zhang, Guihua Tian, Zhaofeng Shi, Yang Sun, Jiayuan Hu, Yin Jiang, Rui Zheng, Shiqi Chen, Chengyu Li, Xinyu Yang, Tianmai He, Songjie Han, Chi Zhang, Lijing Zhang, Yan Liu and Hongcai Shang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:48

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. It is very important for clinicians and dieticians to explore reasonable weight management strategies for obese people that address both short-term weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. We hypothesize...

    Authors: Shaoyong Xu, Juan Zhang, Yuxiang Dong, Ruikun Chen, Wenlei Xu, Zhijun Tan, Ling Gao and Lei Shang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:47

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Falls are two to four times more frequent amongst older adults living in long-term care (LTC) than community-dwelling older adults and have deleterious consequences. It is hypothesised that a progressive exerc...

    Authors: Lynne Taylor, John Parsons, Denise Taylor, Elizabeth Binns, Sue Lord, Richard Edlin, Lynn Rochester, Silvia Del Din, Jochen Klenk, Christopher Buckley, Alana Cavadino, Simon A. Moyes and Ngaire Kerse

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:46

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  24. The death of a significant person through suicide is a very difficult experience and can have long-term impact on an individual’s psychosocial and physical functioning. However, there are only few studies that...

    Authors: Birgit Wagner, Laura Hofmann and Ulrike Maaß

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:45

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. An increasing number of children are suffering from brain damage-related visual processing dysfunctions (VPD). There is currently a lack of evidence-based intervention methods that can be used early in develop...

    Authors: Marlou J. G. Kooiker, Yoni van der Linden, Jenneke van Dijk, Ymie J. van der Zee, Renate M. C. Swarte, Liesbeth S. Smit, Sanny van der Steen-Kant, Sjoukje E. Loudon, Irwin K. M. Reiss, Kees Kuyper, Johan J. M. Pel and Johannes van der Steen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:44

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. In current study we assessed the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the quality of early recovery in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    Authors: Xiangdi Yu, Fangxiang Zhang and Bingning Chen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:43

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Sepsis is a health problem of global importance; treatments focus on controlling infection and supporting failing organs. Recent clinical research suggests that intravenous vitamin C may decrease mortality in ...

    Authors: Marie-Hélène Masse, Julie Ménard, Sheila Sprague, Marie-Claude Battista, Deborah J. Cook, Gordon H. Guyatt, Daren K. Heyland, Salmaan Kanji, Ruxandra Pinto, Andrew G. Day, Dian Cohen, Djillali Annane, Shay McGuinness, Rachael Parke, Anitra Carr, Yaseen Arabi…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:42

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. Current quantitative methods for personalising psychotherapies for depression are unlikely to be able to inform clinical decision-making for hundreds of years. Novel alternative methods to generate hypotheses ...

    Authors: Holly Victoria Rose Sugg, Julia Frost and David A. Richards

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:41

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Current evidence suggests that some of the most effective weight loss approaches are changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors through lifestyle modification programs. The Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB...

    Authors: Bärbel Knäuper, Huma Shireen, Kimberly Carrière, Mallory Frayn, Elena Ivanova, Zhen Xu, Ilka Lowensteyn, Gentiana Sadikaj, Aleksandra Luszczynska and Steven Grover

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:40

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. An article published in this journal analyses the deficiencies in the data of interventional drug trials registered with Clinical Trials Registry - India. We wish to rebut some of the inferences and highlight ...

    Authors: Mohua Maulik, Jyotsna Gupta, Atul Juneja, Tulsi Adhikari, Saurabh Sharma, Yashmin Panchal, Neha Yadav and Mendu Vishnu Vardhana Rao

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:38

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:535

    The Letter to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:39

  31. Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an immune response of the nasal mucosa to airborne allergens and involves nasal congestion, watery nasal discharge, itching of the nose, and sneezing. The symptoms of allergic rhiniti...

    Authors: Jeevani Maheshika Dahanayake, Pathirage Kamal Perera, Priyadarshani Galappaththy and Dulani Samaranayake

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:37

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Non-medical data, such as the amount of time that patients and caregivers spend managing their condition, may be relevant when assessing therapeutic strategies. For chronic pediatric conditions, the time that ...

    Authors: Anaïs Le Jeannic, Hassani Maoulida, Sophie Guilmin-Crépon, Corinne Alberti, Nadia Tubiana-Rufi and Isabelle Durand-Zaleski

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Breast cancer is a global public health issue. The side effects of the clinical treatment can decrease the quality of life of these women. Therefore, a healthy lifestyle is essential to minimize the physical a...

    Authors: Leonessa Boing, Tatiana do Bem Fretta, Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira, Gustavo Soares Pereira, Jéssica Moratelli, Fabiana Flores Sperandio, Anke Bergmann, Fatima Baptista, Mirella Dias and Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:35

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the most reliable information to inform clinical practice and patient care. We aimed to map global clinical research publication activity through RCT-related article...

    Authors: Ferrán Catalá-López, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent, Lisa Caulley, Brian Hutton, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, David Moher and Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:34

    Content type: Research

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  35. The evidence base available to trialists to support trial process decisions—e.g. how best to recruit and retain participants, how to collect data or how to share the results with participants—is thin. One way ...

    Authors: Shaun Treweek, Simon Bevan, Peter Bower, Matthias Briel, Marion Campbell, Jacquie Christie, Clive Collett, Seonaidh Cotton, Declan Devane, Adel El Feky, Sandra Galvin, Heidi Gardner, Katie Gillies, Kerenza Hood, Jan Jansen, Roberta Littleford…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:33

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerular disease worldwide. It has a high incidence in Asians and is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). For high-risk IgAN, which is clinical...

    Authors: Shen Li and Jin-pu Li

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:31

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. Scalp acupuncture has been widely used as treatment for motor dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy in China. Previous studies have failed to provide high-quality evidence to demonstrate the effectivenes...

    Authors: Jun Wang, Wei Shi, Dhiaedin Khiati, Bingpei Shi, Xiaojuan Shi, Dandan Luo, Yin Wang, Rencai Deng, Huayu Huang, Jian Li, Weili Yan and Hong Yang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:29

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), while still considered the gold standard approach in medical research, can encounter impediments to their successful conduct and the dissemination of results. Pretrial qual...

    Authors: Emilie Francis-Auton, Chris Warren, Jeffrey Braithwaite and Frances Rapport

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. We evaluated an intervention designed to teach 10- to 12-year-old primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (any action intended to maintain or improve health). We report outcome...

    Authors: Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula, Andrew D. Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Matt Oxman, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Yunpeng Ding and Nelson K. Sewankambo

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. According to WHO, medication error (ME) is a subject that requires attention at all levels of care to reduce severe and preventable damage related to medication use. Clinical pharmacy practice standards have b...

    Authors: J. Granados, A. Salazar-Ospina, J. P. Botero-Aguirre, A. F. Valencia-Quintero, N. Ortiz and P. Amariles

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:26

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. The 2016 World Health Organization Antenatal Guidelines and the 2015 South African Maternal and Child Health Guidelines recommend one early antenatal ultrasound scan to establish gestational age and to detect ...

    Authors: Linda Richter, Wiedaad Slemming, Shane A. Norris, Alan Stein, Lucilla Poston and Dharmintra Pasupathy

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:25

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the spontaneous appearance of wheals, angioedema, or both for > 6 weeks. Continuous treatment with H1-antihistamines is used as a first-line treatment fo...

    Authors: Atsushi Fukunaga, Yoshiko Oda, Ken Washio, Takashi Omori, Yasumasa Kakei, Michihiro Hide and Chikako Nishigori

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:23

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  43. Depression is a widespread disorder with severe impacts for individuals and society, especially in its chronic form. Current treatment approaches for persistent depression have focused primarily on reducing ne...

    Authors: Artjom Frick, Isabel Thinnes and Ulrich Stangier

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:20

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an epidemic with tremendous public health impacts because there are currently no disease-modifying therapeutics. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for prevention of AD dementia of...

    Authors: Danni Li, Michelle M. Mielke, W. Robert Bell, Cavan Reilly, Lin Zhang, Feng Vankee Lin and Fang Yu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:19

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of depression and anxiety, which greatly reduces their quality of life and is associated with worse outcomes; but these psychologi...

    Authors: Ratna Sohanpal, Hilary Pinnock, Liz Steed, Karen Heslop Marshall, Claire Chan, Moira Kelly, Stefan Priebe, C. Michael Roberts, Sally Singh, Melanie Smuk, Sarah Saqi-Waseem, Andy Healey, Martin Underwood, Patrick White, Chris Warburton and Stephanie J. C. Taylor

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:18

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. People experiencing their first episode of psychosis are often deficient in vitamin D. Observational studies have reported an association between low vitamin D concentrations and poorer subsequent health outco...

    Authors: Fiona Gaughran, Dominic Stringer, Michael Berk, Shubulade Smith, David Taylor, Eromona Whiskey, Sabine Landau, Robin Murray, Philip McGuire, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Gabriella Wojewodka, Simone Ciufolini, Harriet Jordan, Jessie Clarke, Lauren Allen, Amir Krivoy…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:14

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. Worldwide, hypertension is an important public health challenge because of its high prevalence and the concomitant risks of cardiovascular disease. It induces half of the coronary heart disease and approximate...

    Authors: Haoyue Shi, Deshuang Yang, Jiajun Qiao, Rui Sun, Ruihan Li, Chunlin Zhu, Ruiqing Jing, Liping Liu, Li Huang and Lin Li

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:12

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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