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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    Common deterrents to insulin therapy for both physicians and patients are the complexity and burden of daily injections. In January 2006, the first inhaled human insulin (INH, Exubera® (insulinhuman [rDNA origin]...

    Authors: Nick Freemantle and Thomas R Strack

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:25

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a d...

    Authors: Hamid Reza Nakhai Pour, Marielle H Emmelot-Vonk, Marja Sukel-Helleman, Harald JJ Verhaar, Diederick E Grobbee and Yvonne T van der Schouw

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:24

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Thirty thousand knee replacements are performed annually in the UK. There is uncertainty as to the best surgical approach to the knee joint for knee arthroplasty. We planned a randomised controlled trial to co...

    Authors: Stephen Bridgman, Gayle Walley, Gilbert MacKenzie, Darren Clement, David Griffiths and Nicola Maffulli

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:23

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Chagas' disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults from Latin America, and around 20 million people are currently infected by T. cruzi. Heart failure due to Chagas car...

    Authors: Franklin R Quiros, Carlos A Morillo, Juan P Casas, Luz A Cubillos and Federico A Silva

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:21

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    The insertion of a Totally Implantable Access Port (TIAP) is a routinely employed technique in patients who need a safe and permanent venous access. The number of TIAP implantations is increasing constantly ma...

    Authors: P Knebel, B Fröhlich, H-P Knaebel, P Kienle, S Luntz, MW Buchler and CM Seiler

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:20

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Infection promotes coagulation via a large number of molecular and cellular mechanisms, and this procoagulant activity has boosted basic and clinical research using anticoagulant molecules as therapeutic tools...

    Authors: Fabián Jaimes, Gisela De La Rosa, Clara Arango, Fernando Fortich, Carlos Morales, Daniel Aguirre and Pablo Patiño

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:19

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been proven to be beneficial and efficacious for the treatment of serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias in primary prevention patients. However, primary ...

    Authors: Bruce L Wilkoff, Richard Stern, Brian Williamson, Mark Wathen, Keith Holloman, Ann Fieberg and Mark Brown

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:18

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  8. Content type: Research

    To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Authors: Mohammad Imran Khan, Rion Leon Ochiai, Hasan Bin Hamza, Shah Muhammad Sahito, Muhammad Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Naveed Sarwar Bhutto, Shahid Rasool, Mahesh K Puri, Mohammad Ali, Shafi Mohammad Wasan, Mohammad Jawed Khan, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Bernard Ivanoff, Claudia M Galindo, Tikki Pang…

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:17

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, endemic in 88 countries, that has shown an increasing incidence over the last two decades. So far, pentavalent antimony compounds have been considered the treatm...

    Authors: Sandra Y Silva, Ligia C Rueda, Marcos López, Iván D Vélez, Christian F Rueda-Clausen, Daniel J Smith, Gerardo Muñoz, Hernando Mosquera, Federico A Silva, Adriana Buitrago, Holger Díaz and Patricio López-Jaramillo

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:14

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  10. Content type: Commentary

    Service users within the NHS are increasingly being asked to participate in clinical research. In Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, approximately 35% of women take part in research during their pregnancy...

    Authors: Gillian Vernon, Zarko Alfirevic and Andrew Weeks

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:13

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease which is characterized by an irreversible conversion of pancreatic parenchyma to fibrous tissue. Beside obstructive jaundice and pseudocyst formation, about half...

    Authors: Jörg Köninger, Christoph M Seiler, Moritz N Wente, Margot A Reidel, Emre Gazyakan, Ulrich Mansmann, Michael W Müller, Helmut Friess and Markus W Büchler

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:12

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  12. Content type: Study protocol

    Cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease and stroke) is a major cause of death and disability in the United Kingdom, and is to a large extent preventable, by lifestyle modification and drug the...

    Authors: Tim A Holt, Margaret Thorogood, Frances Griffiths and Stephen Munday

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:11

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  13. Content type: Research

    A commonly reported problem with the conduct of multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is that recruitment is often slower or more difficult than expected, with many trials failing to reach their plan...

    Authors: Alison M McDonald, Rosemary C Knight, Marion K Campbell, Vikki A Entwistle, Adrian M Grant, Jonathan A Cook, Diana R Elbourne, David Francis, Jo Garcia, Ian Roberts and Claire Snowdon

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:9

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. Howeve...

    Authors: Arjan D van Zuilen, Ingeborgh van der Tweel, Peter J Blankestijn, Michiel L Bots, Marjolijn van Buren, Marc AGJ ten Dam, Karin AH Kaasjager, Peter JG van de Ven, Gerald Vervoort, Louis-Jean Vleming, Gerry Ligtenberg and Jack FM Wetzels

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:8

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Standard coronary artery bypass graft surgery uses a single internal mammary artery and supplemental vein or radial artery grafts. Several observational studies have suggested a survival benefit with two inter...

    Authors: David P Taggart, Belinda Lees, Alastair Gray, Douglas G Altman, Marcus Flather and Keith Channon

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:7

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  16. Content type: Editorial

    This editorial introduces the new online, open access, peer-reviewed journal Trials. The journal considers manuscripts on any aspect of the design, performance, and findings of randomised controlled trials in any...

    Authors: Douglas G Altman, Curt D Furberg, Jeremy M Grimshaw and Peter M Rothwell

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:6

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  17. Content type: Study protocol

    Falls in older people are a major public health concern in terms of morbidity, mortality and cost. Previous studies suggest that multifactorial interventions can reduce falls, and many geriatric day hospitals ...

    Authors: Tahir Masud, Carol Coupland, Avril Drummond, John Gladman, Denise Kendrick, Tracey Sach, Rowan Harwood, Pradeep Kumar, Rob Morris, Rachael Taylor, Jane Youde and Simon Conroy

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:5

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  18. Content type: Study protocol

    The shoulder is the most frequently dislocated joint in the body. Multiple causes and pathologies account for the various types of shoulder instability. Multi-directional instability (MDI) and multi-directiona...

    Authors: NG Mohtadi, RM Hollinshead, PJ Ceponis, DS Chan and GH Fick

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:4

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  19. Content type: Commentary

    We have previously described how a series of trials sponsored by Pfizer of its antifungal drug, fluconazole, in cancer patients with neutropenia handicapped the control drug, amphotericin B, by flaws in design...

    Authors: Karsten J Jørgensen, Helle Krogh Johansen and Peter C Gøtzsche

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:3

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic for prevention of meningitis in acute traumatic pneumocephalus patients.

    Authors: Behzad Eftekhar, Mohammad Ghodsi, Azar Hadadi, Mousa Taghipoor, Samira Zabihyan Sigarchi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Ehsan Sherafat Kazemzadeh, Babak Esmaeeli, Farideh Nejat, Alireza Yalda and Ebrahim Ketabchi

    Citation: Trials 2006 7:2

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  21. Content type: Research

    Stent length serves as a predictor of restenosis in use of bare metal stents (BMS). This has been demonstrated in a feasibility study that used a single short BMS implant (<9 mm) in a high proportion of lesion...

    Authors: Ulrich Dietz, Cheryl Dauer and Heinz Lambertz

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:18

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  22. Content type: Research

    Cobalt chromium coronary stents are increasingly being used in percutaneous coronary interventions. There are, however, no reliable data about the characteristics of unfolding and visibility of this stent alloy i...

    Authors: Jens Hagemeister, Frank M Baer, Robert HG Schwinger and Hans W Höpp

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:17

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  23. Content type: Research

    Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE ...

    Authors: Madlaina Scharplatz, Milo A Puhan, Johann Steurer, Annalisa Perna and Lucas M Bachmann

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:16

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    Saphenous vein graft disease remains a major limitation of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The process of saphenous vein intimal hyperplasia begins just days after surgical revascularization, setting the...

    Authors: Alexander Kulik, Michel Le May, George A Wells, Thierry G Mesana and Marc Ruel

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:15

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  25. Content type: Review

    The aim of this prospective study of patients undergoing repair of non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm between 1999 and 2003 was to evaluate and compare risk factors for mortality after surgery, to determin...

    Authors: Sigitas Urbonavicius, Henrik Vorum, Grazina Urbonaviciene, Mindaugas Trumpickas, Dainius Pavalkis and Bent Honoré

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:14

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  26. Content type: Research

    In high-risk coronary artery bypass patients; off-pump versus on-pump surgical strategies still remain a matter of debate, regarding which method results in a lower incidence of perioperative mortality and mor...

    Authors: Alper Sami Kunt, Osman Tansel Darcın and Mehmet Halit Andac

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:13

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  27. Content type: Research

    Cardiac biomarkers are routinely obtained in the setting of suspected myocardial ischemia and infarction. Evidence suggests these markers may correlate with functional and clinical outcomes, but the strength o...

    Authors: Aslan T Turer, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dianne Gallup, W Douglas Weaver, Robert H Christenson, Nathan R Every and E Magnus Ohman

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:12

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  28. Content type: Research

    The aim of the SPHERE study is to design, implement and evaluate tailored practice and personal care plans to improve the process of care and objective clinical outcomes for patients with established coronary ...

    Authors: Andrew W Murphy, Margaret E Cupples, Susan M Smith, Molly Byrne, Claire Leathem and Mary C Byrne

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:11

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  29. Content type: Research

    Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female ...

    Authors: Mark Haykowsky, Kenneth Riess, Linda Figgures, Daniel Kim, Darren Warburton, Lee Jones and Wayne Tymchak

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:10

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  30. Content type: Research

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk of cardiovascular events. Multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in ESRD and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular ...

    Authors: Bengt Fellström, Faiez Zannad, Roland Schmieder, Hallvard Holdaas, Alan Jardine, Helen Rose and Wim Wilpshaar

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:9

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  31. Content type: Research

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is related to the accumulation of uremic toxins in the middle and large-middle molecular weight range. As online hem...

    Authors: E Lars Penne, Peter J Blankestijn, Michiel L Bots, Marinus A van den Dorpel, Muriel P Grooteman, Menso J Nubé, Ingeborg van der Tweel and Piet M ter Wee

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:8

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  32. Content type: Research

    Spinal cord electrical stimulation (SCS) has shown to be a treatment option for patients suffering from angina pectoris CCS III-IV although being on optimal medication and not suitable for conventional treatme...

    Authors: Holger Diedrichs, Carsten Zobel, Peter Theissen, Michael Weber, Athanassios Koulousakis, Harald Schicha and Robert HG Schwinger

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:7

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  33. Content type: Review

    Despite widespread availability of a large body of evidence in the area of hypertension, the translation of that evidence into viable recommendations aimed at improving the quality of health care is very diffi...

    Authors: Cornel Pater

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:6

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  34. Content type: Research

    Activation of inflammatory pathways plays an important contributory role in coronary plaque instability and subsequent rupture, which can lead to the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Elevated leve...

    Authors: Petr Ostadal, David Alan, Petr Hajek, Jiri Vejvoda, Martin Mates, Peter Blasko, Josef Veselka, Milan Kvapil, Jiri Kettner, Martin Wiendl, Ondrej Aschermann, Josef Slaby, Eduard Nemecek, Frantisek Holm, Marek Rac, Milan Macek…

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:4

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  35. Content type: Review

    Surrogate measures for cardiovascular disease events have the potential to increase greatly the efficiency of clinical trials. A leading candidate for such a surrogate is the progression of intima-media thickn...

    Authors: Mark A Espeland, Daniel H O'Leary, James G Terry, Timothy Morgan, Greg Evans and Harald Mudra

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:3

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  36. Content type: Research

    Although the association between mitral stenosis (MS) and increased coagulation activity is well recognized, it is unclear whether enhanced coagulation remains localized in the left atrium or whether this repr...

    Authors: Istemihan Tengiz, Ertugrul Ercan, Fahri Sahin, Emin Alioglu, Can Duman, Guray Saydam and Filiz Buyukkececi

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2005 6:2

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  37. Content type: Review

    The delivery of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is sophisticated and requires the programming of over 100 settings. Physicians tailor these settings with the intention of optimizing ICD th...

    Authors: John M Morgan, Laurence D Sterns, Jodi L Hanson, Kevin T Ousdigian, Mary F Otterness and Bruce L Wilkoff

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2004 5:12

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  38. Content type: Research

    Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is becoming the standard therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), to date most patients, even in developed countries, are reperfused with...

    Authors: Ramon B van Loon, Gerrit Veen, Otto Kamp, Jean GF Bronzwaer, Cees A Visser and Frans C Visser

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2004 5:11

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  39. Content type: Research

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms through increased proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. Increased proteolysis due to elevated matrix degr...

    Authors: Istemihan Tengiz, Ertugrul Ercan, Emil Aliyev, Cevad Sekuri, Can Duman and Imre Altuglu

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2004 5:10

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  40. Content type: Research

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are closely interrelated and coexist in as many as two-thirds of patients with type 2 diabetes. The consequent risk of such an association is an accelerated development of at...

    Authors: Cornel Pater, Deepak Bhatnagar, Jean-Pascal Berrou, Joachim Luszick and Katrin Beckmann

    Citation: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine 2004 5:9

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