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Table 1 Definition of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) [36]

From: Comparison of the effects of neostigmine and sugammadex on postoperative residual curarization and postoperative pulmonary complications by means of diaphragm and lung ultrasonography: a study protocol for prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial

PPCs Definition
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Acute onset of hypoxemia (partial pressure of oxygen, arterial (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 300 mmHg) with new bilateral infiltrates in the setting of either a normal pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP ≤ 18 mmHg) or the absence of suspected of left atrial hypertension when PAWP was not available
Atelectasis Collapse of the alveoli; lung opacification with a shift of the mediastinum, hilum, or hemidiaphragm toward the affected area; and compensatory over inflation in the adjacent non-atelectatic lung
Bronchospasm Newly detected expiratory wheeze treated with bronchodilators
Pleural effusion Chest radiograph demonstrating blunting of the costophrenic angle, evidence of displacement of adjacent anatomical structures, or (in supine position) a hazy opacity in one hemithorax with preserved vascular shadows
Pneumothorax A collection of air in the pleural space (the area with no vascular bed surrounding the visceral pleura)
Respiratory failure Postoperative PaO2 60 mmHg on room air, a PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg, or arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation measured with pulse oximetry < 90% and requiring oxygen therapy
Respiratory infection Treatment with antibiotics for a respiratory infection, plus at least one of the following criteria: new or changed sputum, new or changed lung opacities, fever, and leukocyte count > 12,000/mm3