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Table 3 Summary of findings from co-design workshop

From: The development of theory-informed participant-centred interventions to maximise participant retention in randomised controlled trials

Intervention Content/what When Format Where How often Who should provide this? Who should receive it?
1: Incentives and Rewards for follow-up clinic attendance a. Monetary incentive and reward: Financial incentives which participants could choose (e.g. monetary, charitable donation, prefer not to receive). Total incentive cost should not exceed £15, which may be broken down for each visit (i.e. £5 for each visit) that is accrued over time.
b. Non-monetary (social) reward: Send ‘Thank you’ note after attending each clinic and mention that they are making a difference.
a. Monetary incentive and reward: Inform during and after recruitment/
randomisation
b. Non-monetary (social) reward: At the end of a trial
Trial dependent: written information delivered by post or electronically (i.e. email containing online link for charity/vouchers options) Participant receives at home a. Monetary incentive and reward: On completion of all visits
b. Non-monetary (social) reward: After each visit
Trial dependent: trial office/point of contact, health professionals, e.g. clinical specialists Conditional on behaviour: all participants would have the opportunity to receive the incentive but only those who complete the behaviour would get the reward
2: Goal setting for improving questionnaire return Set goals that all questionnaires need to be returned. Show an example of the questionnaire and provide an opportunity to work through
Provide the contact details (and photo) of the point of contact for any queries
During follow-up provide number (%) of other people who completed the questionnaire to encourage further
During the beginning of the trial likely during the informed consent process. Trial dependent: verbal, paper based, electronic. Trial dependent: at trial site or home. Dependent on the total duration and how many follow-up points in the trial Trial dependent: by the point of contact, health professional, recruiter or peer from the trial All participants
3: Self-monitoring to improve questionnaire return and clinic attendance Two options:
1. Provide a portable sized loyalty card (indicating date when questionnaire returns or clinic visits due).
2. Provide a personalised planner—as above with dates for clinic visit or questionnaire completions.
On the other side of the card, mention the purpose of the trial and details/photo of the point of contact
Participants will receive a sticker (after completing each activity) to put on the card/planner
Given timing of questionnaires/clinics will likely depend on date of randomisation, this needs to be delivered post-randomisation Trial dependent: verbal, paper based, electronic Trial dependent: at trial site and/or home During each follow-up (e.g. a week before) send a reminder about self-monitoring Trial office/point of contact All participants
4: Motivational information to improve questionnaire return and clinic attendance Motivational information framed as positive reinforcement e.g. end purpose of this research, benefits of being involved, and how others are doing in the trial Initial recruitment consultation, in the patient information leaflet and throughout the trial during any patient contact Trial dependent: verbal, paper based, electronic Trial dependent: at trial site and/or home Dependent on the trial duration e.g. will be linked to key ‘touch points’ between trial office and participants Trial office/point of contact All participants
Case studies: Aspirational messages about how other research has changed clinical practice
Online forum/peer support to encourage participants throughout the trial period