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Table 4 Influencing factors and motivators to research participation and barriers to retention among PWUD: gender differences

From: A cross-sectional survey of potential factors, motivations, and barriers influencing research participation and retention among people who use drugs in the rural USA

Survey item Male (n = 137) Female (n = 116) Prevalence ratioa,b 95% CI
Selected Not selected Selected Not selected
Influencing factors
 What the research study involves (e.g., survey, drug testing for research) 100 37 81 35 0.98 (0.84, 1.15)
 How much time is required 87 50 72 44 1.02 (0.85, 1.23)
 How often they have to come in for visits 78 59 61 55 0.98 (0.78, 1.22)
 How far they have to travel to participate (i.e., nearby vs. out of town) 85 52 76 40 1.09 (0.90, 1.31)
 Privacy of the research office 92 45 81 35 1.18 (0.70, 2.01)
 Why their information is being collected and what it will be used for 86 49 77 39 1.09 (0.91, 1.31)
 Whether their information will be kept confidential 97 40 92 24 1.15 (0.99, 1.32)
 Whether the staff doing the research is friendly and trustworthy 102 35 87 29 1.03 (0.89, 1.19)
 Whether the research institution or university is respected 65 72 57 59 1.05 (0.81, 1.36)
 Whether they can skip questions of parts of the study that make them uncomfortable 70 67 77 39 1.34* (1.09, 1.65)
 How much money they will receive 99 38 82 34 1.01 (0.87, 1.18)
 How much the project will benefit them overall 81 56 77 39 1.14 (0.94, 1.38)
 Whether their appointment times will interfere with their work schedule 64 73 45 71 0.84 (0.63, 1.13)
 Whether they have childcare so that they can attend their appointments 66 71 59 57 1.07 (0.83, 1.38)
 How their friends, family, or partner feels about them participating 68 69 45 71 0.79 (0.60, 1.05)
Motivations
 Financial incentive (i.e., money or gift card given for participation) 110 27 100 16 1.10 (0.99, 1.23)
 They believe in the mission of the research and want to contribute 86 51 71 45 0.99 (0.81, 1.20)
 Their friends, family, or partner participates 89 48 72 44 0.98 (0.82, 1.19)
 They want to tell their story 77 60 62 54 0.96 (0.77, 1.21)
 They know someone on the research team and want to help them out 36 101 45 71 1.57* (1.09, 2.26)
 They want to learn about the topic 73 64 56 60 0.94 (0.74, 1.20)
 They would want to get free testing (for example, rapid tests for HIV & Hepatitis C) if it was offered as part of the study 93 44 79 37 1.03 (0.87, 1.22)
 They would want to be linked with resources and/or follow-up testing if it was offered as part of the study 93 44 78 38 1.02 (0.86, 1.21)
 They would want to try a new treatment if it was offered as part of the study 93 44 79 37 1.03 (0.87, 1.22)
 Their friends, family, or partner pressures them to participate so that they can share the financial incentive 50 87 35 81 0.84 (0.59, 1.20)
Barriers
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because their contact information changed 111 26 94 22 1.03 (0.91, 1.16)
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because they gave false contact information when they started the study 76 61 69 47 1.11 (0.90, 1.37)
 They may have trouble getting transportation for their appointments 97 40 89 27 1.12 (0.96, 1.30)
 They may have trouble being able to show up at a specific appointment time 94 43 85 31 1.09 (0.93, 1.28)
 They may have trouble getting to their appointment because of their work schedule 66 71 55 61 1.03 (0.79, 1.33)
 They may have trouble finding childcare so that they can go to their appointment 62 75 65 51 1.26 (0.98, 1.61)
 They may have concerns about confidentiality and privacy 70 67 62 54 1.08 (0.86, 1.37)
 They may be afraid that the staff would judge them if they are still using drugs 60 77 56 60 1.15 (0.88, 1.50)
 They may have stopped using drugs and no longer think the study is relevant to them 63 74 57 59 1.11 (0.86, 1.44)
 They are in a drug treatment or recovery facility and are unable to be contacted by research staff 81 56 65 51 0.98 (0.79, 1.21)
 Their friends, family, or partner may want them to stop participating 38 99 39 77 1.23 (0.85, 1.79)
  1. aMale is the referent group
  2. bThe level of response for each survey item was dichotomized into “selected” or “not selected” to generate prevalence ratios
  3. *Significant at α = 0.05 level