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Table 4 Relationships between primary endpoints and secondary endpoints

From: Definitions and elements of endpoints in phase III randomized trials for the treatment of COVID-19: a cross-sectional analysis of trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov

  Trials with severe patients Trials with non-severe patients
Primary endpoints Primary endpoints
Improvementa
(N=45)
Worseninga
(N=39)
Unknowna
(N=13)
Improvementa
(N=97)
Worseninga
(N=117)
Unknowna
(N=51)
Secondary endpoints
Binary
 Improvement 18 (40.0%) 7 (17.9%) 13 (100.0%) 29 (29.9%) 28 (23.9%) 8 (15.7%)
 Recovery 3 (6.7%) 2 (5.1%) 13 (100.0%) 5 (5.2%) 2 (1.7%) 51 (100.0%)
 Mortality 27 (60.0%) 26 (66.7%) 4 (30.8%) 43 (44.3%) 49 (41.9%) 24 (47.1%)
Time-to-event
 Improvement 20 (44.4%) 14 (35.9%) 5 (38.5%) 29 (29.9%) 31 (26.5%) 8 (15.7%)
 Recovery 3 (6.7%) 4 (10.3%) 2 (15.4%) 8 (8.2%) 5 (4.3%) 4 (7.8%)
 Mortality 7 (15.6%) 9 (23.1%) 3 (23.1%) 10 (10.3%) 12 (10.3%) 5 (9.8%)
Ordinal
 One time point 9 (20.0%) 6 (15.4%) 2 (15.4%) 10 (10.3%) 20 (17.1%) 6 (11.8%)
 Longitudinal 7 (15.6%) 10 (25.6%) 1 (7.7%) 7 (7.2%) 12 (10.3%) 2 (3.9%)
  1. aBinary and time-to-event endpoints of primary endpoints