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Table 2 Outcome measures of the M2M study

From: The movement-to-music (M2M) study: study protocol for a randomized controlled efficacy trial examining a rhythmic teleexercise intervention for people with physical disabilities



Outcome measures

Collection time points

Primary outcomes

Cardiorespiratory fitness

Resting heart rate [35]

Heart rate recovery test [36, 37]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Muscle strength

Hand-held dynamometer [38,39,40]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Secondary outcomes

Lower extremity function

Short physical performance battery [41]

Timed up and go [42,43,44]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Health-related quality of life

NIH PROMIS 10 Global Health Items [45]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Social participation

NIH PROMIS Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities Short Form 8a [45]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Physical activity

Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire [46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]

Baseline and 12 weeks


Program adherence

Percentage of # of attended eM2M sessions

12-week intervention period

Group cohesion

Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire [55,56,57]

12 weeks

Instructor support

Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Exercise Settings [57, 58]

12 weeks

Exercise self-efficacy

Exercise Self-efficacy Scale [59]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Exercise self-regulation

Exercise Goal-setting Scale [60]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Outcome expectations for exercise

Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale [61]

Baseline and 12 weeks

Social support for exercise

Social Provisions Scale [62]

Baseline and 12 weeks


Functional mobility

Short Physical Performance Battery [41]


Disability type

Demographics and Health History Questionnaire



Barriers in physical activity

Barriers in Physical Activity Questionnaire [63]