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Table 2 Comparison of clinical trial methodologies

From: Is antibiotic treatment effective in the management of chronic low back pain with disc herniation? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Clinical trials/protocol Albert et al. [6] Bråten et al. [7] Urquhart et al. (2021)
Patient subgroup
  Participants with disc herniation and type 1 Modic changes Participants with disc herniation and type 1 and 2 Modic changes Participants with disc herniation—with and without type 1 and 2 Modic changes
Intervention
  Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500/125 mg)
100 days
Amoxicillin (750 mg)
3 months
Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500/125 mg)
3 months
Other treatments allowed
  No other treatment allowed during the 1 year trial period. Usual care allowed
Encouraged to limit non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
Usual care allowed
Use of non-opioid analgesia and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories permitted