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Table 3 Mean change from baseline in within-group and in between-group for the outcome measures immediately and session 6 after intervention

From: Effect of manual therapy with exercise in patients with chronic cervical radiculopathy: a randomized clinical trial

Outcome measure Within-group mean difference (95% CI) Between-group mean difference (95% CI)
Experimental group (n=14) Comparison group (n=14)
PPT (kPa)
Cervical spine
  Immediately 35 (−4.6, 75.4) −12 (−52.2, 27.8) 48 (−9.0, 104)
  Session 6 124a (57, 191.1) 67 (−.43, 133.7) 57 (−37.4, 152.2)
C7 hand
  Immediately −2 (−58.9, 63.7) 13 (−48.4, 74.3) −15 (−102.0, 71.5)
  Session 6 99a (3.6, 194.9) 83.6 (−12.1, 179.4) 16 (−119.7, 151.0)
Affected dermatome
  Immediately −19 (−95.0, 56.9) −30 (−106.3, 45.6) 11 (−96.1, 118.7)
  Session 6 75 (−27.5, 177.4) 23 (−79.8, 125.1) 52 (−92.5, 197.2)
Tibialis anterior
  Immediately −37 (−117.2, 44.1) 1 (−79.3, 81.9) −38 (−152.0, 76.2)
  Session 6 79 (−5.8, 162.9) 83 (−1.7, 166.9) −4 (−123.4, 115.3)
HPT (°C)
Cervical spine
  Immediately 0.6 (−1.5, 2.8) −2.3 (−4.5, −0.2) 3.0 (−0.1, 6.0)
  Session 6 0 (−2.0, 2.1) −0.6 (−2.7, 1.4) 0.6 (−2.3, 3.5)
C7 hand
  Immediately 0.1 (1.0, 1.4) −0.5 (−1.7, 0.7) 0.6 (−1.0, 2.3)
  Session 6 0.1 (−2.1, 2.4) −1.6 (−3.8, 0.7) 1.7 (−1.5, 4.8)
Affected dermatome
  Immediately −1.1 (−3.0, 3.1) 0.0 (−1.8, 1.8) −1.1 (−3.7, 1.6)
  Session 6 −0.3 (−3.7, 3.1) −1.1 (−4.3, 2.2) 0.8 (−3.9, 5.4)
Tibialis anterior
  Immediately 0.4 (−0.7, 1.4) −0.8 (−1.9, 0.2) 1.2 (−0.3, 2.7)
  Session 6 0.5 (−1.0, 1.9) −0.1 (−1.7, 1.3) 0.6 (−1.5, 2.7)
CPT (°C)
Cervical spine
  Immediately −1.8 (−6.8, 3.2) −3.4 (−8.4, 1.6) −1.6 (−8.7, 5.4)
  Session 6 1.7 (−3.6, 6.9) −2.9 (−8.2, 2.3) −4.7 (−12.1, 2.8)
C7 hand
  Immediately −3.5 (−6.8, −0.4) −1.3 (−4.4, 2.0) 2.4 (−2.2, 6.9)
  Session 6 −0.9 (−5.4, 3.5) −2.2 (−6.6, 2.3) −1.2 (−7.4, 5.1)
Affected dermatome
  Immediately −1.3 (−6.5, 3.7) −2.3 (−7.2, 2.5) −0.9 (−8.0, 6.1)
  Session 6 0.6 (−4.5, 5.5) −2.4 (−7.2, 2.3) −3.0 (−9.9, 4.0)
Tibialis anterior
  Immediately −3.2 (−5.9, −0.3) 0.2 (−2.5, 3.0) 3.3 (−0.6, 7.3)
  Session 6 −2.2 (−5.9, 1.6) 1.7 (2.0, 5.5) 3.9 (−1.4, 9.1)
NPRS (0-10)
 Immediately 1.8a (0.8, 2.8) 0.4 (−0.6, 1.3) −1.4a (−2.8, −0.0)
 Session 6 3.9a (2.4, 5.2) 1.2 (−0.2, 2.6) −2.6a (−4.6, −0.7)
NDI (0-50)
 Immediately --- --- ---
 Session 6 16.2a (9.4, 23.0) 2.4 (−4.3, 9.1) −14.0a (−23.3, −4.3)
Cervical ROM (degree)
Flexion
  Immediately 4 (−3.4, 10.1) 4 (−2.6, 11.0) −0.8 (−10.4, 8.8)
  Session 6 5 (−2.1, 11.5) 4 (−2.4, 11.2) 0.3 (−9.3, 10.0)
Extension
  Immediately 0 (−5.8, 6.1) −3 (−9.2, 2.7) 3.1 (−5.3, 11.5)
  Session 6 10a (1.3, 17.7) −4 (−12.6, 3.8) 14.0a (2.3, 25.5)
Rotation (affected)
  Immediately 6a (0.6, 12.1) −2 (−8.1, 3.4) 8.7a (0.6, 16.8)
  Session 6 12a (7.7, 17.4) −3 (−7.9, 1.8) 15.6a (8.8, 22.5)
Rotation (unaffected)
  Immediately 3 (−3.4, 56.9) 0 (−5.6, 5.9) 2.1 (−6.0, 10.2)
  Session 6 4 (−1.7, 8.3) 1 (−4.2, 5.9) 2.4 (−4.7, 9.5)
Lateral flexion (affected)
  Immediately 7a (1.6, 11.4) 0 (−4.8, 5.0) 6.5 (−0.5, 13.4)
  Session 6 8a (3.2, 13.4) −1 (−1.3, 13.4) 9.5a (2.3, 16.8)
Lateral flexion (unaffected)
  Immediately −1 (−4.6, 3.1) 0 (−4.1, 3.7) −1.0 (−6.4, 4.5)
  Session 6 0 (−4.2, 4.9) −1 (−5.4, 3.5) 1.4 (−4.9, 7.7)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, CPT Cold pain threshold, HPT Heat pain threshold, NDI Neck disability index, NPRS Numeric pain rating scale, ROM Range of motion, PPT Pressure pain threshold
  2. aIndicates significant P value