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Table 1 Stretching and strengthening exercises

From: Effects of variable frequencies of kinesthesia, balance and agility exercise program in adults with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Stretching exercises
Exercise Description Intensity
   Warm-up Cool-down
1.Hamstring stretch The patient positioned supine and keeps the knees and hips at 90–90° position. The knee of one leg is then, extended progressively with the foot moving towards the ceiling until it is perpendicular to the floor. Switch sides 15 s × 6 sets 15 s × 6 sets
2.Quadriceps stretch Patient positioned in side-lying and grasps the forefoot behind. The forefoot or ankle is pulled to a rear end. Switch sides 15 s × 6 sets 15 s × 6 sets
3.Calf stretch The patient sits with the legs straight out in front. One leg is bent and a towel is placed around the ball of the opposite foot. While keeping the knee straight, pull the foot towards the body with the towel. Switch sides 15 s × 6 sets 15 s × 6 sets
Strengthening exercises
Exercise Description Intensity
1.Static quadriceps isometrics The patient stands with one leg straight and the knee of the opposite leg flexed, and the foot flat on the ground. A rolled towel or a cushion is placed underneath the straight leg’s knee. The straight knee is then pressed on the towel and the position is held. Switch sides 15–30 s × 6 sets
2.Seated knee extension The patient sits on a chair with one foot flat on the floor and straightens the opposite foot. Switch sides 15–30 s × 6 sets
3. Lying leg curl The patient lies prone and squeezes the inner thigh to keep the legs close next to each other. The legs are then bent as far as possible by bringing the heels in towards the buttocks 15–30 s × 6 sets