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Table 5 Overview of IPE methods

From: Whole School SEND (WSS) Review: study protocol for a two-arm pragmatic parallel cluster randomised controlled trial in 160 English secondary schools

Research methods Data collection methods Participants/ data sources (type, number) Data analysis methods Research questions addressed [10] Implementation/ logic model relevance
Survey (pre/post-test) SLT/SENDCo online survey SLT/SENDCo (160) Descriptive
Inferential
Cross-tabulations
Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
RQ1
RQ2
RQ3
RQ4
Moderators
Usual practice
Context
Cost
Telephone semi-structured interviews 10 control group SENDCos Description—pen portraits RQ2 Usual practice
Observations Observation of WSS regional training 3 (of 5) events   RQ3 Compliance
Activities
Fidelity
Quality
Observation of WSS regional engagement days 1 and 2 5 events × 2   RQ1
RQ3
Activities
Fidelity
Quality
Case studies (5; case study unit = pair of secondary schools; analytical approach = methodological and participant triangulation) Document analysis SIP
SEND information report
SEND policy
LA local offer
WSS Review SEND Development Plan
Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
Cross-case analysis
RQ1
RQ3
Context
Quality
Moderators
Observation of WSS support visit 10 case study schools Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
Cross-case analysis
RQ1
RQ3
Activities
Fidelity
Quality
Interviews with key stakeholders in case study schools Depends on focus of school action plan. 5 interviews × 3 visits Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
Cross-case analysis
RQ1
RQ3
RQ4
Fidelity
Cost
Context
Moderators
Quality
Reach
Responsiveness
Programme Differentiation
Observation of activities relating to delivery of action plan Depends on focus of action plan. Maximum of 2 observations × 3 visits Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
Cross-case analysis
RQ1
RQ3
Activities
Context
Quality
Reach
Responsiveness
Stakeholder groups surveys Depends on focus of action plan. Maximum of 3 surveys × 2 administrations Descriptive
Cross-tabulations
RQ1 Context
Moderators
Quality
Reach
Responsiveness
Semi-structured interviews Telephone interviews with WSS staff 5 key staff from WSS Mixed coding
Thematic analysis
RQ1
RQ3
RQ4
Context
Cost
Fidelity