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Table 4 Secondary analysis—model specifications—SEND only samples years 8 and 9 cohorts (as at September 2020)

From: Whole School SEND (WSS) Review: study protocol for a two-arm pragmatic parallel cluster randomised controlled trial in 160 English secondary schools

Dependent variable Model Intervention group indicator Strata indicator Covariates Cohort (at 09/20)
Attainment outcomes
GCSE Mathematics Mark (standardised) Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 mathematics raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
GCSE Mathematics Mark (standardised) Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 mathematics raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
GCSE English Language Grade 1-9 Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 reading raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
GCSE English Language Grade 1-9 Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 reading raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
GCSE Mathematics Grade 1-9 Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 mathematics raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
GCSE Mathematics Grade 1-9 Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • KS2 mathematics raw score at pupil and school levels
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
Attendance and exclusion outcomes
Number of authorised absences in previous school year 2022/2023 Count negative binomial hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of authorised absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
Number of authorised absences in previous school year 2023/2024 Count negative binomial hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of authorised absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
At least one unauthorised absence in school year 2022/2023 Binary logistic hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
At least one unauthorised absence in school year 2023/2024 Binary logistic hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
At least one exclusion from school in school year 2022/2023 Binary logistic hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
At least one exclusion from school in school year 2023/2024 Binary logistic hierarchical Yes Yes • Number of absences in school year 2019/2020
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8
Wellbeing outcomes
Total difficulties (SDQ) Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • Total difficulties baseline score
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 9
Total difficulties (SDQ) Linear hierarchical Yes Yes • Total difficulties baseline score
• Month of birth
• Sex
Year 8