Skip to main content

Table 1 Percentage of the clinical population excluded by condition studied

From: Exclusion rates in randomized controlled trials of treatments for physical conditions: a systematic review

 Number of trialsMedian percentage excluded (range excluded)a
All conditions30577.1 (0.0 to 100.0)
Cardiovascular conditions8174.7 (1.6 to 98.8)
 Heart failure2565.0 (18.8 to 92.0)
 Hypertension2283.0 (1.6 to 98.8)
 Stroke/transient ischemic attack2183.6 (33.2 to 98.4)
 Atrial fibrillation434.9 (32.3 to 41.2)
 Coronary heart disease453.1 (2.8 to 84.5)
 Lipid lowering for primary prevention485.9 (69.7 to 89.1)
 Secondary prevention of myocardial infarction176.8
Diabetes mellitus1688.1 (29.8 to 99.0)
 Type 2 diabetes781.7 (49.3 to 96.5)
 Diabetic ulcers793.3 (29.8 to 99.0)
 Type 1 diabetes291.6 (87.5 to 95.6)
Respiratory conditions7889.4 (42.4 to 100.0)
 COPD5184.3 (42.4 to 100.0)
 Asthma1796.0 (64.0 to 100.0)
 Bronchiectasis1080.1 (49.0 to 93.0)
Cancer2456.6 (13.6 to 81.2)
 Breast cancer1256.6 (28.9 to 81.2)
 Lung cancer371.4 (65.4 to 71.9)
 Renal cancer313.6 (13.6 to 48.5)
 Colorectal cancer266.7 (65.7 to 67.6)
 Bladder cancer145.3
 Stomach cancer141.3
 Lymphoma170.4
 Prostate cancer157.1
Rheumatoid arthritis5184.0 (56.0 to 98.7)
HIV infection3242.0 (0.0 to 67.6)
Other conditions2358.3 (23.7 to 88.9)
 Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis941.5 (23.7 to 78.8)
 Venous ulcers783.6 (58.3 to 88.9)
 Brain injury240.5 (35.9 to 45.0)
 Pressure ulcers134.7
 Alzheimer’s disease186.5
 Fibromyalgia152.1
 Irritable bowel syndrome173.1
 Incisional hernia162.5
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  2. a Where there is only one trial–clinical population comparison, the number reported is the value for that comparison; where there are two, the median reported is the midpoint value between the two