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Table 3 Characteristics of the index sample of pragmatic RCTs

From: Process evaluation within pragmatic randomised controlled trials: what is it, why is it done, and can we find it?—a systematic review

Randomisation level Comparator
 Individual 25  Usual care 15
 Cluster 6  Other intervention(s) 10
    Stepped-wedge control period 2
Design  Comparing two settings 1
 2-arm 22  Comparing two deliverers 1
 Non-inferiority (2-arm) 4  No intervention 1
 3-arm 3  Sham clinical procedure 1
 Crossover 1   
 Stepped-wedge 1 Publishing journal
    British Medical Journal 7
Primary outcome result  Lancet 7
 No evidence of effect 15  JAMA 5
 Evidence of effect 11  Canadian Medical Association Journal 2
 Non-inferiority trial 4  JAMA Pediatrics 2
 Unclear 1  Critical Care Medicine 1
    Gut 1
Funder  JAMA Internal Medicine 1
 Public 25  JAMA Psychiatry 1
 Multiple funders 3  Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1
 Charity 1  New England Journal of Medicine 1
 Independent Organisation 1  Nursing Research 1
 Not reported 1  The American Journal of Psychiatry 1
Type of intervention Country
 Pharmacological treatment strategy 9  UK 12
 Clinical procedure 4  USA 8
 Therapy intervention 4  Australia 3
 Clinical treatment strategy 3  Netherlands 2
 Model of care provision 3  Brazil 1
 Reminder system 3  Canada 1
 Health promotion 3  France 1
 Medical device 2  France, Belgium and Switzerland 1
    Hong Kong 1
    North Americaa 1
  1. aCountries not specified in original article