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Table 5 The effects of dill powder supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms at baseline and postintervention

From: The effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes

 Dill powder (n = 21)Placebo (n = 21)
Gastrointestinal symptom012012
Gastroesophageal reflux
 Baseline5 (23.8%)7 (33.3%)9 (42.9%)7 (33.3%)5 (23.8%)9 (42.9%)
 End6 (28.6%)9 (42.9%)6 (28.6%)7 (33.3%)5 (23.8%)9 (42.9%)
P value 0.135  1.00 
Esophageal motility disorders
 Baseline18 (85.7%)1 (4.8%)2 (9.5%)16 (76.2%)3 (14.3%)2 (9.5%)
 End16 (76.2%)3 (14.3%)2 (9.5%)16 (76.2%)3 (14.3%)2 (9.5%)
P value 0.317  1.00 
Dyspepsia
 Baseline15 (71.4%)2 (9.5%)4 (19%)14 (66.7%)3 (14.3%)4 (19%)
 End12 (57.1%)7 (33.3%)2 (9.5%)13 (61.9%)5 (23.8%)3 (14.3%)
P value 0.198  0.368 
Gastric motility disorders
 Baseline12 (57.1%)1 (4.8%)8 (38.1%)11 (52.4%)2 (9.5%)8 (38.1%)
 End15 (71.4%)3 (14.3%)3 (14.3%)11 (52.4%)2 (9.5%)8 (38.1%)
P value 0.112  1.00 
Colonic motility disorders
 Baseline7 (33.3%)3 (14.3%)11 (52.4%)6 (28.6%)5 (23.8%)10 (47.6%)
 End10 (47.6%)10 (47.6%)1 (4.8%)7 (33.3%)4 (19%)10 (47.6%)
P value 0.010*  0.317 
  1. The numbers 0, 1 and 2 indicate the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms, where 0 = the patient had no gastrointestinal symptoms, 1 = patient had occasional gastrointestinal symptoms, and 2 = the patient had permanent gastrointestinal problems
  2. Data are expressed as percent of relative frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms
  3. *P < 0.05 considered as significant, and significant values are shown in bold type
  4. P value within group comparison of variables resulted from chi-squared tests