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Table 5 The effects of dill powder supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms at baseline and postintervention

From: The effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Dill powder (n = 21) Placebo (n = 21)
Gastrointestinal symptom 0 1 2 0 1 2
Gastroesophageal reflux
 Baseline 5 (23.8%) 7 (33.3%) 9 (42.9%) 7 (33.3%) 5 (23.8%) 9 (42.9%)
 End 6 (28.6%) 9 (42.9%) 6 (28.6%) 7 (33.3%) 5 (23.8%) 9 (42.9%)
P value   0.135    1.00  
Esophageal motility disorders
 Baseline 18 (85.7%) 1 (4.8%) 2 (9.5%) 16 (76.2%) 3 (14.3%) 2 (9.5%)
 End 16 (76.2%) 3 (14.3%) 2 (9.5%) 16 (76.2%) 3 (14.3%) 2 (9.5%)
P value   0.317    1.00  
Dyspepsia
 Baseline 15 (71.4%) 2 (9.5%) 4 (19%) 14 (66.7%) 3 (14.3%) 4 (19%)
 End 12 (57.1%) 7 (33.3%) 2 (9.5%) 13 (61.9%) 5 (23.8%) 3 (14.3%)
P value   0.198    0.368  
Gastric motility disorders
 Baseline 12 (57.1%) 1 (4.8%) 8 (38.1%) 11 (52.4%) 2 (9.5%) 8 (38.1%)
 End 15 (71.4%) 3 (14.3%) 3 (14.3%) 11 (52.4%) 2 (9.5%) 8 (38.1%)
P value   0.112    1.00  
Colonic motility disorders
 Baseline 7 (33.3%) 3 (14.3%) 11 (52.4%) 6 (28.6%) 5 (23.8%) 10 (47.6%)
 End 10 (47.6%) 10 (47.6%) 1 (4.8%) 7 (33.3%) 4 (19%) 10 (47.6%)
P value   0.010*    0.317  
  1. The numbers 0, 1 and 2 indicate the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms, where 0 = the patient had no gastrointestinal symptoms, 1 = patient had occasional gastrointestinal symptoms, and 2 = the patient had permanent gastrointestinal problems
  2. Data are expressed as percent of relative frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms
  3. *P < 0.05 considered as significant, and significant values are shown in bold type
  4. P value within group comparison of variables resulted from chi-squared tests