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Table 1 Physicochemical characteristics of selected electrolyte solutions and human plasma

From: Study Protocol for Better Evidence for Selecting Transplant Fluids (BEST-Fluids): a pragmatic, registry-based, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of intravenous fluid therapy with Plasma-Lyte 148 versus 0.9% saline on delayed graft function in deceased donor kidney transplantation

  0.9% Saline Ringers Lactate Plasmalyte Human plasma
Sodium (mmol/L) 154 130 140 136–145
Potassium (mmol/L) 0 4 5 3.5–5.0
Magnesium (mmol/L) 0 0 1.5 0.8–1.0
Calcium (mmol/L) 0 2.7 0 2.2–2.6
Chloride (mmol/L) 154 109 98 98–106
Acetate (mmol/L) 0 0 27 0
Gluconate (mmol/L) 0 0 23 0
Lactate (mmol/L) 0 28 0 0
pH 6.8 6.5 7.4 7.35–7.45
Osmolarity (mOsm/L) 308 273 295 280–296
Calculated osmolality in vivoa (mOsm/kg) 287 254 271  
Isotonic with plasma Yes Nob Yes  
  1. aSodium and chloride are only partially osmotically active with an osmotic coefficient of 0.926
  2. bRingers Lactate is hypotonic compared with plasma