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Table 3 Mean importance ratings for individual items in surveys 1 and 2, ordered by survey 2 importance ratings (possible score range 1–9: 1 = lowest importance, 9 = highest importance)

From: An international, Delphi consensus study to identify priorities for methodological research in behavioral trials in health research

Research itemsSurvey 1Survey 2
MeanSDRankMeanSDRank
1. Specifying intervention components7.811.3138.33.811
2. How to disseminate behavioral trial research findings to increase implementation7.831.4528.3.932
3. Methods for ensuring that behavioral interventions are implementable into practice and policy7.751.5248.21.903
4. Use of systematic approaches to move from evidence to intervention components7.91.1918.11.984
5. Selecting appropriate behavioral outcomes for trials7.661.2368.04.685
6. Tailoring interventions to specific populations and contexts7.691.6657.961.206
7. Reporting intervention and comparison group(s) intervention content7.641.2677.930.927
8. Selection of suitable comparison group(s) within trials7.551.1587.860.858
9. Development of novel research designs to test behavioral interventions as alternatives to, or to complement, standard randomized controlled trials (RCTs)7.421.46117.601.259
10. Measurement of process(es) of change or mechanisms of action within interventions7.441.53107.561.3810
11. Strategies to optimize intervention fidelity (including adherence)7.291.43137.531.0911
12. Using theory in behavioral intervention development7.041.8187.491.3512
13. Standardizing methods for reporting behavioral trials7.251.49157.471.3113
14. Determining clinically significant changes in outcomes within trials7.271.38147.441.2114
15. Relationship between behavioral outcomes and clinical/other outcomes7.451.4297.41.0715
16. Standardized methods for reporting and registering behavioral trials’ protocols7.161.58167.351.3816
17. Methods to assess intervention fidelity7.271.64147.31.3817
18. Exploring impact of mode of intervention delivery7.361.33127.191.0818
19. Strategies to maximize trial participant recruitment and retention7.051.75177.111.1319
20. Investigating the impact of intervention intensity on outcomes (new item in survey 2)N/AN/AN/A7.111.1819
21. Incorporating stakeholder input in intervention development and delivery6.911.48197.091.1520
22. How to optimize stakeholder engagement in behavioral trial research6.861.41217.07.9421
23. Determining ideal timing of outcome measurement within trials6.881.49206.951.0622
24. Novel approaches and designs for piloting behavioral interventions6.861.88216.911.4723
25. Establishing criteria for progressing from trial piloting phases to full RCT6.911.61196.891.3524
26. Contamination between study arms (intervention and comparison) within trials6.841.57226.791.2425
27. Testing the impact of stakeholder engagement in behavioral trial research6.701.74236.701.3626
28. Impact on intervention delivery of characteristics (such as qualifications and training) of those delivering interventions6.561.57246.671.2627
29. Engaging stakeholders in the selection of outcomes (New item in survey 2)N/AN/AN/A6.631.5428
30. Methods for cost-effectiveness analyses for behavioral trials6.431.56266.301.2229
31. Trials’ research to test and develop behavioral theories6.451.70256.181.3430
32. Strategies for handling missing data within behavioral trials6.261.80276.121.4431
33. Developing novel statistical techniques to enhance behavioral trials6.031.69296.041.1532
34. Blinding of researchers and participants to study arm allocation6.11.90285.931.5033
35. Sample-size calculations for pilot studies5.842.30305.491.9634