Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of study measures

From: A prospective randomized controlled study of auricular point acupressure to manage chronic low back pain in older adults: study protocol

Construct Specific measure # Items Reliability and validity Timing
Screening
  Mini-Mental State Examination   Good [50] b
Primary outcomes: pain intensity, pain interference, physical function  
  minimal data set 4 Good [22] a, b
Secondary outcomes
 Analgesic use Quantification Score Version III   Objective [51] a, b
 HRQoL Health-related quality of life 36 High [52] b
 Satisfaction Treatment satisfaction 12 Good [47, 48] 4 weeks only
Psychological
 Anxiety, depression Minimal data set 8 Good [22] b
 Fear/avoidance Fear Avoidance Beliefs 16 Good [53] b
 Catastrophizing Pain Catastrophizing Scale 13 Good [54] b
Behavioral
 Sleep Minimal data set   Good [22]  
 Relaxation Relaxation response 1 Pilot study b
Moderating variables: comorbidity, demographics
  minimal data set   Good [22] Baseline
Nonspecific psychological placebo effects
 Expectations, beliefs Treatment expectation 2 Good [47, 48] Baseline
 Relationship Patient-provider relationship 7 Good [55] b
  1. aEMA, ecological momentary assessment; bBaseline, post completion of treatment, monthly follow-up for 3 months