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Table 2 Variables assessed and definitions of abnormality findings in heart POCUS

From: Impact of point-of-care ultrasound on the hospital length of stay for internal medicine inpatients with cardiopulmonary diagnosis at admission: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial—the IMFCU-1 (Internal Medicine Focused Clinical Ultrasound) study

 Variable assessedDefinitions
LV volumeLVEDDNormal LVEDD 3–5.6 cm
LV dilated > 5.6 cm
Hypovolemia < 3 cm
LV systolic functionOverall subjective impressionNormal – Reduced – Increased
Difference between diameters in diastole and systole (LVEDD–LVESD) in PLAX viewNormal 28–44 mm
Reduced < 28 mm
Increased > 44 mm
Difference between areas in diastole and systole
(LVEDA–LVESA) in PSAX view
Normal 50–65 mm2
Reduced < 50 mm2
Increased > 65 mm2
RV sizeCompared to LV sizeNormal < 2/3 of LV size
RVEDDNormal < 4 cm
Increased > 4 cm
RV systolic functionOverall subjective impressionNormal – Decreased
LA sizeLA diameter in PLAX or A4C viewsNormal < 3.5 cm
LA area in A4C viewNormal < 20 cm2
Increased > 20 cm2
LA filling pressureInter-atrium septum movementNormal: systolic reversal of the inter-atrium septum
High filling pressure: fixed curvature of the inter-atrium septum to the right
Low filling pressure: systolic buckling of the inter-atrium septum
Cardiac valvesLeaflets appearance and thickness
Opening of the valve
Presence of reverse jet
Significant aortic stenosis:
An opening < 1.5 cm in PLAX or
Heavy calcification with inability to see the valve opening
Significant aortic regurgitation:
A jet that runs on the wall of the LV outflow track
A jet that is wider than 25% of the diameter of LVOT
A jet that extends down to the ventricle > 2.5 cm
Significant mitral stenosis:
Impaired opening of the mitral valve
A hockey stick appearance of one or both of the mitral leaflets
Significant mitral regurgitation:
Regurgitation jet covering > 20% of the LA area in A4C or PLAX
A turbulent jet that runs along the wall of the atrium
Prominent flail mitral valve leaflet or rupture papillary muscle
Significant tricuspid regurgitation:
Any edge-tracking jet
Any central jet > 5 cm2
Pericardial effusionPresence of anechoic space between parietal and visceral pericardiumSignificant pericardial effusion is defined as > 0.5 cm in any view
Inferior vena cavaDiameter of the inferior vena cava in the subcostal view during normal breathingMaximum diameter in cm and percentage of collapsibility during normal inspiration are reported. Estimation of the right atrium pressure is informed as follows:
IVC < 2.1 cm collapsing > 50% ➔ RAP: 3 mmHg
IVC > 2.1 cm collapsing < 50% ➔ RAP: 15 mmHg
Values between the two above ➔ RAP:8 mmHg
  1. A4C apical four chambers, LA left atrium, LV left ventricle, LVEDA left ventricle end-diastole area, LVEDD left ventricle end-diastole diameter, LVESA left ventricle end-systole area, LVESD left ventricle end-systole diameter, PLAX parasternal long axis, POCUS point-of-care ultrasound, PSAX parasternal short axis, RAP right atrium pressure, RVEDD right ventricle end-diastole diameter