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Table 10 Results for each concept for children at 1-year follow-up

From: Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects, 1-year follow-up: a cluster-randomised trial

No.ConceptControl schools
% correcta
No. of schools = 60
No. of children = 2844
Intervention schools
% correcta
No. of schools = 60
No. of children = 3943
Adjusted differenceb (95% CI)ICCcOdds ratio (95% CI)
 Claims     
1.1Treatments may be harmful.40.5%
(n = 1152)
64.6%
(n = 2547)
29.2%
(22.4–35.0%)
0.1203.33
(2.50–4.35)
P < 0.00001
1.2Personal experiences or anecdotes (stories) are an unreliable basis for assessing the effects of most treatments.26.5%
(n = 753)
52.0%
(n = 2052)
30.0%
(24.5–34.2%)
0.1193.85
(2.86–5.00)
P < 0.00001
1.3A treatment outcome may be associated with a treatment, but not caused by the treatment.d27.3%
(n = 776)
36.4%
(n = 1436)
11.2%
(6.4–15.2%)
0.0871.69
(1.33–2.13)
P = 0.00002
1.4Widely used treatments or treatments that have been used for a long time are not necessarily beneficial or safe.26,3%
(n = 748)
54,4%
(n = 2144)
30.0%
(23.8–35.1%)
0,1573.70
(2.70–5.00)
P < 0.00001
1.5New, brand-named, or more expensive treatments may not be better than available alternatives.48.9%
(n = 1392)
73.6%
(n = 2901)
28.1%
(22.2–34.5%)
0.0883.33
(2.63–4.35)
P < 0.00001
1.6Opinions of experts or authorities do not alone provide a reliable basis for deciding on the benefits and harms of treatments.43.2%
(n = 1230)
67.6%
(n = 2664)
26.8%
(20.3–33.3%)
0.1133.03
(2.33–4.00)
P < 0.00001
1.7Conflicting interests may result in misleading claims about the effects of treatments.37.0%
(n = 1051)
47.2%
(n = 1861)
10.8%
(5.5–15.9%)
0.0771.56
(1.25–1.96)
0.00009
 Comparisons     
2.1Evaluating the effects of treatments requires appropriate comparisons.10.3%
(n = 294)
32.0%
(n = 1263)
24.2%
(21.1–26.2%)
0.1485.56
(3.85–7.69)
P < 0.00001
2.2A part from the treatments being compared, the comparison groups need to be similar (i.e., ‘like needs to be compared with like’).12.1%
(n = 344)
29.3%
(n = 1155)
16.6%
(14.2–18.9%)
0.0632.86
(2.33–3.57)
P < 0.00001
2.5If possible, people should not know which of the treatments being compared they are receiving.23.3%
(n = 664)
36.2%
(n = 1428)
15.1%
(11.4–18.8%)
0.0702.13
(1.72–2.70)
P < 0.00001
3.1Small studies in which few outcome events occur are usually not informative and the results may be misleading.32.6%
(n = 928)
50.3%
(n = 1984)
20.5%
(15.8–25.3%)
0.0822.38
(1.92–3.03)
P < 0.00001
4.1The results of single comparisons of treatments can be misleading.29.1%
(n = 827)
44.8%
(n = 1766)
17.6%
(12.4–22.2%)
0.0962.17
(1.69–2.78)
P < 0.00001
 Choices     
5.1Treatments usually have beneficial and harmful effects.35.2%
(n = 1000)
50.8%
(n = 2004)
16.8%
(11.4–22.1%)
0.0902.00
(1.59–2.56)
P < 0.00001
  1. aThere were two multiple-choice questions for each concept. The proportions are for the percentage of children who answered both questions correctly
  2. bThe adjusted difference is based on mixed models with a random effects term for the clusters and the stratification variables modelled as fixed effects, using logistic regression. The odds ratios from the logistic regressions have been converted to differences based on the intervention school proportions and the inverse of the odds ratios shown here
  3. cIntraclass correlation coefficient
  4. dThis concept was not included in the learning resources or counted in the average, pass or mastery scores