|• Treatments may be harmful.|
• Personal experiences or anecdotes (stories) are an unreliable basis for assessing the effects of most treatments.
• Widely used treatments or treatments that have been used for a long time are not necessarily beneficial or safe.
• New, brand-named, or more expensive treatments may not be better than available alternatives.
• Opinions of experts or authorities do not alone provide a reliable basis for deciding on the benefits and harms of treatments.
• Conflicting interests may result in misleading claims about the effects of treatments.
|• Evaluating the effects of treatments requires appropriate comparisons|
• Apart from the treatments being compared, the comparison groups need to be similar (i.e., ‘like needs to be compared with like’).
• If possible, people should not know which of the treatments being compared they are receiving.
• Small studies in which few outcome events occur are usually not informative, and the results may be misleading.
• The results of single comparisons of treatments can be misleading.
|• Treatments usually have beneficial and harmful effects.|