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Table 2 ANCOVA of pulmonary function test

From: Using an incentive spirometer reduces pulmonary complications in patients with traumatic rib fractures: a randomized controlled trial

CovariantControl group (n = 26)Study group (n = 24)p value
%FEV1 pre-test71.96 ± 16.3360.48 ± 16.65.717
%FEV1 post-test66.66 ± 16.9779.97 ± 13.04.003*
 %FEV1 difference−5.28 ± 11.9519.49 ± 17.50< .001*
%FVC pre-test70.44 ± 16.9959.05 ± 15.34.371
%FVC post-test65.58 ± 16.3677.72 ± 13.28.006*
 %FVC difference−4.85 ± 10.9218.65 ± 17.77< .001*
  1. ANCOVA analysis of covariance, FEV1 forced expiratory value in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity
  2. *p < 0.05