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Table 1 Patient demographics

From: Using an incentive spirometer reduces pulmonary complications in patients with traumatic rib fractures: a randomized controlled trial

 Whole cohort
n = 50 (%)
Control group
n = 26 (%)
Study group
n = 24 (%)
p value
Age (years)55.2 ± 14.554.5 ± 15.256.0 ± 13.90.904
Sex (male, %)34 (68%)17 (65.4%)17 (70.8%)0.680
Height (cm)164.0 ± 7.9163.0 ± 7.4165.0 ± 8.50.216
Weight (kg)69.0 ± 12.070.9 ± 10.966.8 ± 12.90.281
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 ± 4.226.7 ± 4.724.4 ± 3.20.493
ISS8.2 ± 3.88.2 ± 3.88.1 ± 3.80.894
Initial blood laboratory data
 White blood cell (103/uL) 15.3 ± 5.412.3 ± 5.00.466
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.6 ± 2.913.7 ± 1.70.500
 Hematocrit (%) 37.1 ± 7.539.9 ± 4.30.466
 Platelet count (103/uL) 225.4 ± 63.6209.7 ± 44.20.518
 Prothrombin time/INR 0.99 ± 0.041.00 ± 0.040.593
 APTT ratio 0.95 ± 0.070.92 ± 0.070.549
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 19.2 ± 7.79.0 ± 4.20.473
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.89 ± 0.160.97 ± 0.310.343
 AST (U/L) 34.0 ± 9.527.3 ± 11.40.306
 Sodium (mmol/L) 137.2 ± 3.5138.9 ± 2.30.463
 Potassium (mmol/L) 3.9 ± 0.93.8 ± 0. 50.406
Smoking status   0.247
 Non-smoker31 (62%)14 (53.8%)17 (70.8%) 
 History of smoking3 (6%)1 (3.8%)2 (8.3%) 
 Current smoker16 (32%)11 (42.3%)5 (20.8%) 
Injury site   0.425
 Left25 (50%)11 (42.3%)14 (58.3%) 
 Right21 (42%)12 (46.2%)9 (37.5%) 
 Bilateral4 (8%)3 (11.5%)1 (4.2%) 
Number of ribs fractured3.94 ± 2.054.08 ± 1.943.79 ± 2.210.341
 < 311 (22%)5 (19.2%)6 (25%)0.623
 ≥ 339 (78%)21 (80.8%)18 (75%)0.623
Trauma mechanism   0.243
 Car accident6 (12%)4 (15.4%)2 (8.3%) 
 Motorcycle accident25 (50%)10 (38.5%)15 (62.5%) 
 Pedestrian2 (4%)02 (8.3%) 
 Fall < 3 m12 (24%)8 (30.8%)4 (16.7%) 
 Fall > 3 m2 (4%)2 (7.7%)0 
 Work accident2 (4%)1 (3.8%)1 (4.2%) 
 Fighting1 (2%)1 (3.8%)0 
Associated injuries
 Fracture of extremity4 (8%)2 (7.7%)2 (8.3%)0.933
 Head1 (2%)1 (3.8%)00.332
 Liver laceration1 (2%)1 (3.8%)00.332
 Scapular fracture5 (10%)2 (7.7%)3 (12.5%)0.571
 Clavicle fracture8 (16%)2 (7.7%)6 (25%)0.095
Diabetes mellitus12 (24%)5 (19.2%)7 (29.2%)0.411
Hypertension17 (34%)7 (26.9%)10 (41.7%)0.272
Heart disease5 (10%)2 (7.7%)3 (12.5%)0.571
Kidney disease3 (6%)2 (7.7%)1 (4.2%)0.600
Anti-platelet/coagulant use before trauma5 (10%)2 (7.7%)3 (12.5%)0.571
  1. APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, INR international normalized ratio, ISS Injury Severity Score