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Table 1 PROFHER inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: The impact of surgeon and patient treatment preferences in an orthopaedic trauma surgery trial

Inclusion criteria
Adults (aged 16 years or above) presenting within 3 weeks of their injury with a radiologically confirmed displaced fracture of the humerus involving the surgical neck
This should include all 2-part surgical-neck fractures; 3-part (including surgical neck) and 4-part fractures of proximal humerus (Neer classification). It may also include displaced surgical-neck fractures that do not meet the exact displacement criteria of the Neer classification (1 cm or/and 45° angulation of displaced parts) where this reflects an individual surgeon’s equipoise (e.g. whether or not the surgical-neck fracture should be treated surgically)
Exclusion criteria Number of patients excludeda
1. Associated dislocation of the injured shoulder joint 101
2. Open fracture 2
3. Mentally incompetent patient: unable to understand trial procedure or instructions for rehabilitation; significant mental impairment that would preclude compliance with rehabilitation and treatment advice 116
4. Co-morbidities precluding surgery/anaesthesia 179
5. A clear indication for surgery such as severe soft-tissue compromise requiring surgery/emergency treatment (nerve injury/dysfunction) 87
6. Multiple injuries: same limb fractures; other upper limb fractures 72
7. Pathological fractures (other than osteoporotic) 5
8. Terminal illness 5
9. Participant not resident in trauma-centre catchment area 28
  1. aMore than one reason per patient possible