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Table 3 Impact of the Participation Enabling CAre in Nursing (PECAN) intervention on participation, activity, health status, and instrumental activities of daily living

From: Improved participation of older people with joint contractures living in nursing homes: feasibility of study procedures in a cluster-randomised pilot trial

  Intervention group (n = 57) Control group (n = 52) Group differencea LMMb
Baseline
Mean (SD)
6 months
Mean (SD)
Difference
Mean t2-t0 (SD)
Baseline
Mean (SD)
6 months
Mean (SD)
Difference
Mean t2-t0 (SD)
Mean
(95% CI)
Coefficient
(95% CI)
Participation scale 46.2 (26.3) 43.0 (35.6) − 2.9 (23.5) 43.9 (16.8) 41.3 (24.7) − 2.4 (21.8) 0.5 (− 8.4; 9.3) − 2.5 (− 5.5, 0.6)
Activity scale 56.5 (20.1) 54.4 (24.6) − 2.439 (12.5) 57.5 (14.7) 51.8 (20.8) − 5.7 (11.4) − 3.2 (− 7.8; 1.4) − 2.4 (− 9.8, 5.0)
VAS EQ-5D-3 L 52.9 (18.4) 51.8 (18.1) − 2.1 (20.4) 53.9 (22.4) 54.8 (28.2) 0.7 (25.9) 2.8 (− 6.3; 11.9)
Lawton IADL Scale 1.5 (1.6) 2.6 (2.5) 0.6 (1.5) 1.2 (1.8) 2.2 (2.4) 0.7 (1.5) 0.1 (− 0.6; 0.7)
  1. n = 109; t0 = baseline, t2 = 6-month follow-up
  2. Missing values: Participation scale t2 (n = 5); Activity scale t2 (n = 3); Visual Analogue Scale of the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 Level Version
  3. (VAS EQ-5D-3 L) t0 (n = 1), t2 (n = 4); and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale t0 (n = 18), t2 (n = 1)
  4. Ranges: Participation scale and Activity scale 0 (no problems) to 100 (complete problems); Lawton IADL Scale 0 (low function) to 8 (high function); VAS EQ-5D-3 L 0 (worst imaginable health status) to 100 (best imaginable health status)
  5. aDifference between mean-intervention (t2-t0) versus mean-control (t2-t0)
  6. bLinear mixed model (LMM) with a mixed-effect term for varying intercepts by clusters, and for residents that are nested within clusters, adjusted for age and gender