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Table 2 Comparison by treatment group at each assessment period

From: Comparative effectiveness of Chuna manual therapy versus conventional usual care for non-acute low back pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Variables Group   P value*
CMT (n = 20)
Mean [95% CI]
UC (n = 20)
Mean [95% CI]
CMT + UC (n = 20)
Mean [95% CI]
 
NRS (LBP)
 1st Week 5.80 [5.18, 6.42] 5.50 [5.01, 5.99] 6.05 [5.51, 6.59] 0.176c
 7th Week 2.53 [1.78, 3.28] 3.55 [2.73, 4.37] 4.30 [3.25, 5.35] 0.016b
 Difference − 3.28 [− 4.08, − 2.47] −1.95 [− 2.82, − 1.08] −1.75 [− 2.70, − 0.80] 0.021c
P value < 0.001e < 0.001f 0.005f  
NRS (leg pain)
 1st Week 3.60 [2.23, 4.97] 1.85 [0.70, 3.00] 4.40 [2.98, 5.82] 0.018c
 7th Week 1.15 [0.40, 1.90] 1.15 [0.45, 1.85] 2.55 [1.53, 3.57] 0.053c
 Difference − 2.45 [− 3.53, − 1.37] −0.70 [− 1.73, 0.33] −1.85 [− 3.10, − 0.60] 0.096c
P value < 0.001f 0.140f 0.015f  
ODI
 1st Week 25.17 [22.12, 28.22] 26.06 [22.42, 29.70] 28.47 [24.55, 28.57] 0.388b
 7th Week 12.88 [9.00, 16.75] 15.71 [11.39, 20.04] 19.20 [13.75, 24.65] 0.135b
 Difference − 12.29 [− 16.86, − 7.72] −10.34 [− 14.63, − 6.06] −9.27 [− 14.28, − 4.26] 0.933c
P value < 0.001e < 0.001f 0.001e  
PGIC
 1st Week
 7th Week 6.00 [5.60, 6.39] 5.06 [4.62, 5.49] 5.53 [5.06, 5.99] 0.011c
EQ-5D (points)
 1st Week 0.70 [0.62, 0.79] 0.74 [0.71, 0.76] 0.63 [0.53, 0.73] 0.078c
 7th Week 0.88 [0.79, 0.92] 0.81 [0.75, 0.87] 0.77 [0.70, 0.84] 0.180c
 Difference 0.16 [0.06, 0.25] 0.07 [0.01, 0.14] 0.14 [0.03, 0.25] 0.421b
P value 0.002f 0.033f 0.019f  
HUI-III
 1st Week 0.88 [0.82, 0.93] 0.88 [0.82, 0.94] 0.91 [0.87, 0.95] 0.750c
 7th Week 0.95 [0.92, 0.98] 0.93 [0.89, 0.97] 0.91 [0.86, 0.95] 0.233c
 Difference 0.07 [0.02, 0.17] 0.05 [−0.01, 0.11] 0.00 [− 0.04, 0.03] 0.037c
P value 0.011f 0.054f 0.857f  
ROM (flexion)
 1st Week 89.00 [84.60, 93.40] 89.30 [85.71, 92.89] 81.65 [73.10, 90.20] 0.261c
 7th Week 94.00 [90.01, 97.99] 88.50 [83.35, 93.66] 88.00 [79.60, 96.40] 0.253c
 Difference 5.00 [−0.68, 10.68] −0.80 [− 3.77, 2.17] 6.35 [− 0.46, 13.16] 0.026c
P value 0.063f 0.579e 0.049f  
  1. All values are mean ± standard deviation. *Statistical analysis was conducted based on intension-to-treat analysis, imputing by the method of last observation carried forward.
  2. CMT Chuna manual therapy, UC usual care, CI confidence interval, NRS numerical rating scale, LBP low back pain, ODI Oswestry Disability Index, PGIC Patient’s Global Impression of Change, EQ-5D EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire, HUI-III Health Utility Index, ROM range of motion
  3. aP values were adjusted for observed value at baseline by using baseline value as covariate in analysis of covariance
  4. bP values were derived from analysis of variance
  5. cP values were derived from the Kruskal-Wallis test
  6. dP values were derived from the paired t test
  7. eP values were derived from the Wilcoxon signed-rank test