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Table 3 Qualitative data collection topics and example questions

From: How context can impact clinical trials: a multi-country qualitative case study comparison of diagnostic biomarker test interventions

Patients in Chiang Rai and Yangon Patients in Hanoi
Data collection topics Example questions Data collection topics Example questions
Medicine use and treatment-seeking behaviour “You recently visited the health centre because of a fever. What was the process of getting treatment? Please be as specific as possible, step by step.” Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and treatment-seeking behaviour “What is your understanding about the causes of ARI and its natural history?”, “Why did you choose to visit the clinic on this occasion?”
Decision-making about medicines “When would you use medicines for an illness? When not?” Perception of CRP testing “Does the test need to be improved? If yes, how?”
Demand-side preferences, local notions and myths about medicine “What is the best treatment for fever?” Impact on antimicrobial use “What do you expect from seeing the doctor with ARI?”, “Did you seek for subsequent antimicrobials if your doctor did not give you antimicrobial?”
Health provider landscape and preferences from patient perspective “Can you tell me which health providers are available to you, and which of them you would visit for treatment?” Impact on consultation “What other information would you need to help you fully trust the test and trust the doctor’s opinion that you do not need antimicrobials?”
Experiences in public healthcare “For your visit at the health centre, can you please tell me: How did you feel if you did not receive the medication you expected?” Recommendations “In your opinion, should a CRP test be done as a part of routine diagnosis for ARI patients in primary care settings?”
CRP POCT experiences “Do you feel that you were treated differently than usual because of the test?”   
Healthcare workers in Chiang Rai and Yangon Healthcare workers in Hanoi
Data collection topics Example questions Data collection topics Example questions
Workload, freedom and constraint in work “What are your roles and responsibilities in your work” Perception of CRP testing “What do you like / dislike about the test?”
Scope of outpatient work “How many outpatients do you deal with on a normal day” Impact on antimicrobial prescription “How did the test support your treatment decision?”, “What do you think your patients are expecting from seeing a doctor? (Drugs / Antimicrobials / Advice / Reassurance / Diagnosis / Others)”
The system context of CRP POCT “Are any tests being carried out (e.g. by yourself) to diagnose [common outpatient complaints]?” Impact on consultation “Did you use the CRP result to discuss with patients about your treatment decision?”
Antibiotics marketing “Do drug company representatives promote the use of certain medicines in your health centre?” Recommendations “In your opinion, should a CRP test be introduced in routine practice of your setting? Why / Why not?”
Extent of patient demand, dynamics in patient–HCW interaction “Do patients demand certain drugs or treatments?”   
Antibiotics prescription practice “For what conditions do you prescribe antibiotics?”   
Risk reduction through antibiotics “Can antibiotics be a way to protect you from patient demands, ineffective treatment, or problems in diagnosing an illness?”   
(Measures to limit) over-prescription “If you had to reduce antibiotics prescriptions, what would you consider the most effective way?”   
  1. Source: Haenssgen et al. [47], Do [48]
  2. Healthcare worker (HCW) interviews in Chiang Rai and Yangon initially included vignettes to explore understanding of best practices, which were dropped due to time constraints
  3. CRP C-reactive protein, CRP POCT C-reactive protein point-of-care test