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Table 4 Modular multi-modal exercise programme for patients with bone metastases [48, 51, 56, 57]

From: Mechanical suppression of osteolytic bone metastases in advanced breast cancer patients: a randomised controlled study protocol evaluating safety, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of exercise as a targeted medicine

Metastasis site Resistance Aerobic Flexibility
Upper Trunk Lower WB NWB Static
Pelvis √**  
Lumbar spine    √***
Thoracic spine/ribs √*   √***
Proximal femur √**  
All regions √*   √**   √***
  1. Abbreviations: WB weight bearing (e.g. walking), NWB non-weight bearing (e.g. cycling)
  2. √ represents target exercise region
  3. *Exclusion of shoulder flexion/extension/abduction/adduction - inclusion of elbow flexion/extension
  4. **Exclusion of hip extension/flexion - inclusion of knee extension/flexion
  5. ***Exclusion of spine/flexion/extension/rotation