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Table 5 Changes in VAS, SF-MPQ, and ODI scores in participants with chronic low back pain who received TEA or acupuncture

From: Efficacy and safety of thread embedding acupuncture for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled pilot trial

Variable Group Time, mean(se) p value
Screeninga) 2 weekb) 4 weekc) 6 weekd) 8 weeke) 10 weekf) time group time × group
VAS TEA group 6.04 ± 0.29 4.54 ± 0.35 3.97 ± 0.41 3.40 ± 0.44 2.93 ± 0.47 2.34 ± 0.42 < 0.001c (a > b > c,d > e > f)d 0.556 0.749
Acupuncture group 5.91 ± 0.34 4.81 ± 0.37 3.99 ± 0.37 3.89 ± 0.40 3.38 ± 0.38 2.79 ± 0.35
SF-MPQ
 Descriptive scale TEA group 18.85 ± 1.23 12.55 ± 1.58 11.20 ± 1.45 10.20 ± 1.25 7.60 ± 0.75 7.20 ± 1.02 < 0.001c (a > b,c,d,e,f)d 0.248 0.355
Acupuncture group 19.40 ± 1.65 13.50 ± 1.24 11.30 ± 1.18 11.85 ± 1.28 11.05 ± 1.25 9.80 ± 1.16
 PPI TEA group 2.65 ± 0.15 1.90 ± 0.14 1.80 ± 0.12 1.55 ± 0.14 1.45 ± 0.11 1.30 ± 0.11 < 0.001c (a > b,c,d,e,f)d 0.242 0.389
Acupuncture group 2.45 ± 0.15 2.10 ± 0.16 2.00 ± 0.19 1.95 ± 0.15 1.65 ± 0.15 1.50 ± 0.14
ODI TEA group 35.20 ± 1.93 29.09 ± 2.19 24.14 ± 1.88 23.84 ± 1.80 20.54 ± 1.57 18.56 ± 1.51 < 0.001c (a > b > c,d,e,f)d 0.004b 0.038a (a,b,c,d > e,f)d
Acupuncture group 41.56 ± 2.88 35.17 ± 2.64 31.70 ± 2.79 31.09 ± 2.52 32.15 ± 2.72 29.80 ± 2.09
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviations
  2. TEA thread-embedding acupuncture, VAS visual analog scale, SF-MPQ short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, PPI Present Pain Intensity scale, ODI Oswestry Disability Index
  3. ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.001: statistically significant difference according to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  4. dp < 0.05: statistically significant difference according to multiple comparisons by contrast analysis with Bonferroni’s correction