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Table 2 Treatment sites for thread-embedding acupuncture in the dorsal area of the human body

From: Efficacy and safety of thread embedding acupuncture for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled pilot trial

  Localization    
Muscle Skeleton Direction of insertion Needle length Number of pieces inserted
Intrinsic muscle (spinalis, rotatores) L3–4, L4–5, L5–S1 Perpendicular insertion 40 mm 6 pieces
Multifidus muscle L4–5 Oblique insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Lumbar erector spinae Sacrum–L5, L3–L1 Transverse insertion 60 mm 4 pieces
Iliolumbar ligament L5–iliac crest Oblique insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Sacroiliac ligament Posterior inferior iliac spine–coccyx Oblique insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Gluteus medius Transverse insertion 40 mm 2 pieces
Piriformis Perpendicular insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Thoracic vertebrae erector spinae T7–10 Transverse insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Thoracic vertebrae erector spinae T3–5 Transverse insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Trapezius, levator scapulae C7 Transverse insertion 60 mm 2 pieces
Cervical vertebrae erector spinae C4–7 Transverse insertion 40 mm 2 pieces
Total 28 pieces