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Table 3 Definition of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), Jammer et al. [24]

From: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level to prevent expiratory flow limitation during cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial (EFLcore study)

Complication Definition
Non-fatal cardiac arrest An absence of cardiac rhythm or presence of chaotic rhythm requiring any component of basic or advanced cardiac life support
Acute myocardial infarction Increase and gradual decrease in troponin level or a faster increase and decrease of creatine kinase isoenzyme as markers of myocardial necrosis in the company of at least one of the following: ischemic symptoms, abnormal Q waves on the ECG, ST-segment elevation or depression; coronary artery intervention (e.g., coronary angioplasty) or a typical decrease in an elevated troponin level detected at its peak after surgery in a patient without a documented alternative explanation for the troponin elevation
Congestive heart failure New in-hospital signs or symptoms of dyspnea or fatigue, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, increased jugular venous pressure, pulmonary râles on physical examination, cardiomegaly, or pulmonary vascular engorgement
New cardiac arrhythmia ECG evidence of atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, or second- or third-degree atrioventricular conduction block
Angina Dull, diffuse, substernal chest discomfort precipitated by exertion or emotion and relieved by rest or glyceryl trinitrate
  1. ECG electrocardiogram