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Table 2 Definition of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), Jammer et al. [24]

From: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level to prevent expiratory flow limitation during cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial (EFLcore study)

Complication Definition
Respiratory infection Patient has received antibiotics for a suspected respiratory infection and met one or more of the following criteria: new or changed sputum, new or changed lung opacities, fever, white blood cell count > 12 × 109 l-1
Respiratory failure Postoperative PaO2 < 8 kPa (60 mmHg) on room air, a PaO2:FIO2 ratio < 40 kPa (300 mmHg) or arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation measured with pulse oximetry < 90% and requiring oxygen therapy
Pleural effusion Chest radiograph demonstrating blunting of the costophrenic angle, loss of sharp silhouette of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm in upright position, evidence of displacement of adjacent anatomical structures or (in supine position) a hazy opacity in one hemithorax with preserved vascular shadows
Atelectasis Lung opacification with a shift of the mediastinum, hilum, or hemidiaphragm toward the affected area, and compensatory over-inflation in the adjacent non-atelectatic lung
Pneumothorax Air in the pleural space with no vascular bed surrounding the visceral pleura
Bronchospasm Newly detected expiratory wheezing treated with bronchodilators
Aspiration pneumonitis Acute lung injury after the inhalation of regurgitated gastric contents
  1. PaO2 arterial partial oxygen pressure, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen