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Table 1 Inclusion/exclusion criteria

From: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level to prevent expiratory flow limitation during cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial (EFLcore study)

Eligibility criteria
Inclusion criteria:
• Elective cardiac surgery, with median sternotomy and two-lung ventilation
• Patients scheduled for mitral valve regurgitation and/or aortic valve regurgitation surgery, performed with CPB and aortic cross-clamping
• Adult patients (age 18 years or older)
• Ability to provide informed consent
• High risk for respiratory dysfunction, defined as 1 of: preoperative hypoxemia (arterial oxygen saturation < 92% in room air or arterial oxygen partial pressure < 60 mmHg at blood-gas analysis or a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200 at basal blood-gas analysis); preoperative obesity (BMI > 30); preoperative ejection fraction < 50%; preoperative NYHA class > II Age > 65 years [25].
Exclusion criteria:
• Non-elective cardiac surgery
• Anticipated circulatory arrest, TAVI, Mitraclip
• Patient’s refusal
• Pregnancy
• Thoracotomic approach, with one-lung ventilation
• Previous pulmonary resection
• Patients with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis
• Patients with chronic kidney insufficiency (stage III or greater)
• Patients already intubated before arrival in operating theater
• Pneumonia in the previous 30 days
  1. BMI body mass index, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, NYHA New York Heart Association, TAVI transcatheter aortic valve implantation