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Table 1 Eligibility criteria

From: Assessment of chiropractic care on strength, balance, and endurance in active-duty U.S. military personnel with low back pain: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Criteria Rationale
Inclusion criteria  
 Age 18–40 years Age range of most active-duty military personnel
 Able to provide voluntary written informed consent Able to comprehend trial details and make independent decisions without impairment
 Active-duty status at Naval Air Station Pensacola Chiropractic care and assessment instruments available only to active-duty personnel at Naval Air Station Pensacola
 Self-reported acute, subacute, or chronic low back pain severity at initial screen and baseline visit 1 with a pain intensity of ≥2 within the past 24 h on a 0–10 numerical rating scale Low back pain with enough severity likely to demonstrate reduced strength, balance, or endurance
Exclusion criteria
 Any chiropractic care within 30 days prior to informed consent Prevent possibility of carryover effects from recent care
 Low back pain confirmed or suspected to arise from a visceral source Evaluation or care outside trial scope required
 Spinal pathology or other condition contraindicating spinal manipulation Evaluation or care outside trial scope required
 Spinal fracture within the past 6 months To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests
 Spinal surgery within the past 6 months To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests
 Low back pain with presumptive or confirmed spinal nerve root compression To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests
 Imaging evidence of neuroforaminal or spinal canal stenosis or the clinical presentation of neurogenic claudication To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests
 Chronic pain syndrome diagnosis Condition not under study and evaluation or care outside trial scope required
 Diagnosis or suspicion of inflammatory spinal arthropathy Condition not under study and evaluation or care outside trial scope required
 Referral needed to evaluate or treat an urgent or emergent condition or to determine status of a condition pertaining to eligibility Evaluation or care outside study scope
 Unable to perform strength, balance, or endurance tests safely, or unable to assess health status To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests
 Pregnancy or planning to become pregnant within the next 6 weeks To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests and to avoid confounding assessments due to changing physical status during pregnancy
 Knowledge of impending transfer or absence during trial period To ensure ability to comply with trial protocol
 Seeking or referred to medical evaluation board or physical evaluation board regarding disability status To ensure safety in strength, balance, and endurance tests and to ensure ability to comply with trial protocol
 Unable or unwilling to comply with trial protocols To ensure able to comply with trial protocol
 Patellar height is <15 in. (38.1 cm) or >25.5 in. (64.8 cm) To ensure strength assessment can be performed within protocol