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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics and obstetric outcomes

From: Evaluation of different doses of transcutaneous nerve stimulation for pain relief during labour: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Group p
TENS 1 (n = 21) TENS 2 (n = 21) Placebo (n = 21)
Age (years) 28.3 ± 5.3 28.9 ± 6.0 27.1 ± 5.3 0.545*
Weight (kg) 72.9 ± 10.9 75.9 ± 12.6 71.5 ± 7.7 0.399*
BMI (kg/m2) 26.7 ± 2.9 28.7 ± 5.4 26.8 ± 1.6 0.745*
Presentation 0.714**
 Cephalic-vertex 12 (19) 11 (17.5) 8 (12.7)
 Cephalic-sinciput 5 (7.9) 3 (4.8) 5 (7.9)
 Cephalic-brow 1 (1.6) 3 (4.8) 4 (6.3)
 Cephalic-face 0 0 1 (1.6)
 Breech 3 (4.8) 4 (6.3) 3 (4.8)
Gestational age (weeks) 39.5 ± 1.5 39.6 ± 1.5 39.3 ± 1.3 0.508*
Childbirth preparation course 0.446**
 Yes 13 (20.6) 11 (17.5) 15 (23.8)
 No 8 (12.7) 10 (15.9) 6 (9.5)
Length of first stage (min) 443 (216) 451 (238) 527 (225) 0.532*
Length of second stage (min) 42 (23.5) 40 (18.3) 38 (21.4) 0.722*
Position adopted during labour 0.319**
 Sitting 3 (4.8) 3 (4.8) 1 (1.6)
 Lateral decubitus 1 (1.6) 2 (3.2) 0
 Dorsal decubitus 7 (11.1) 10 (15.9) 4 (6.3)
 Dorsal decubitus and sitting 6 (9.5) 4 (6.3) 9 (14.3)
 Lateral decubitus and sitting 2 (3.2) 0 3 (4.8)
 Lateral and dorsal decubitus 2 (3.2) 2 (3.2) 4 (6.3)
Pushing methods for the second stage of labour 0.774**
 Valsalva pushing 12 (19) 10 (15.9) 12 (19)
 Spontaneous pushing 9 (14.3) 11 (17.5) 9 (14.3)
Perineal laceration 0.469**
 None 1 (1.6) 1 (1.6) 0
 Grade I 15 (23.8) 19 (30.2) 19 (30.2)
 Grade II 4 (6.3) 1 (1.6) 2 (3.2)
 Grade III 1 (1.6) 0 0
Accompanying person during the active phase of labour 21 (33.3) 21 (33.3) 21 (33.3) 1**
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)
  2. TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, BMI body mass index
  3. *p values obtained from Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way analysis of variance tests
  4. **p values obtained from χ2 test