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Table 3 Incidence of postoperative pain, defined as a VAS score ≥ 3 and analgesic administration in the study groups

From: Comparison of dexmedetomidine vs. remifentanil combined with sevoflurane during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized controlled trial

Parameter Remifentanil (n = 47) Dexmedetomidine (n = 47) P
VAS score
 At the end of surgery 1 (0, 3) 0 (0, 2) 0.095
 8 h after surgery 2 (0, 3) 1 (0, 3) 0.637
 24 h after surgery 1 (0, 3) 0 (0, 2) 0.785
 48 h after surgery 0 (0, 1) 0 (0, 2) 0.261
Patients with VAS score ≥ 3
 At the end of surgery 13 (27.66) 7 (14.89) 0.207
 8 h after surgery 19 (40.43) 15 (31.91) 0.520
 24 h after surgery 12 (25.53) 8 (17.02) 0.450
 48 h after surgery 4 (8.51)* 9 (19.15) 0.231
Patients requiring analgesic administration
 Within 8 h after surgery 24 (51.06) 17 (36.17) 0.212
 Within 72 h after surgery 30 (63.83) 24 (51.06) 0.297
Patients who required analgesics or had a VAS score ≥ 3 after transfer out of the PACU 26 (55.32) 22 (46.81) 0.536
  1. Values expressed as median (25% percentile, 75% percentile), or number (percentages)
  2. PACU post-anesthesia care unit, VAS visual analog scale
  3. *P < 0.05 vs. patients with VAS score ≥ 3 at the end of surgery