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Table 3 Estimated mean change in anxiety, depression, and sleep quality outcomes at 3-months and 9-months

From: Art therapy is associated with sustained improvement in cognitive function in the elderly with mild neurocognitive disorder: findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial for art therapy and music reminiscence activity versus usual care

  Art therapy
(n = 22)
Music reminiscence activities
(n = 24)
Control
(n = 22)
Number of participants assessed at 3 months 19 23 18
Number of participants assessed at 9 months 18 22 18
Geriatric Anxiety Inventory total score
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) − 0.45 (0.72) −0.98 (0.66) −1.25 (0.75)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.80 (−0.92, 2.52) [0.444] 0.27 (− 1.39, 1.92) [0.791]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) −0.17 (0.71) − 0.75 (0.65) −0.05 (0.72)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] −0.12 (− 1.79, 1.56) [0.909] −0.70 (− 2.30, 0.91) [0.474]  
Geriatric depression scale total score
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) − 0.76 (0.62) −0.75 (0.57) −1.22 (0.64)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.46 (−1.02, 1.93) [0.610] 0.46 (− 0.96, 1.89) [0.590]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) −1.06 (0.62) − 1.15 (0.57) −0.47 (0.63)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] −0.59 (− 2.05, 0.88) [0.509] −0.67 (− 2.08, 0.74) [0.431]  
Sleep quality visual analog scale
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) 6.94 (4.39) −2.09 (4.09) 3.56 (4.62)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 3.39 (− 7.15, 13.92) [0.595] −5.65 (− 15.85, 4.55) [0.361]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) 3.44 (4.17) 4.51 (3.82) 2.06 (4.29)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 1.39 (− 8.54, 11.32) [0.817] 2.46 (− 7.08, 11.99) [0.670]  
  1. Mean values were estimated using a linear mixed-effects model adjusted for baseline values and gender. See “Methods” section for outcome definitions
  2. SE standard error, CI confidence intervals