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Table 2 Estimated mean change in memory-related neuropsychological outcomes at 3-months and 9-months

From: Art therapy is associated with sustained improvement in cognitive function in the elderly with mild neurocognitive disorder: findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial for art therapy and music reminiscence activity versus usual care

  Art therapy
(n = 22)
Music reminiscence activities
(n = 24)
Control
(n = 22)
Number of participants assessed at 3 months 19 23 18
Number of participants assessed at 9 months 18 22 18
RAVLT List Learning Sum z-score
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) 1.01 (0.19) 0.36 (0.17) 0.47 (0.19)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.54 (0.105, 0.978) [0.042] −0.11 (− 0.529, 0.314) [0.674]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) 1.07 (0.17) 0.73 (0.15) 0.60 (0.16)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.47 (0.089, 0.854) [0.043] 0.13 (− 0.240, 0.493) [0.569]  
RAVLT Delayed Recall z-score
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) 0.31 (0.14) 0.25 (0.13) 0.08 (0.14)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.24 (−0.088, 0.561) [0.230] 0.17 (− 0.142, 0.486) [0.366]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) 0.41 (0.13) 0.41 (0.12) 0.27 (0.12)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.14 (−0.159, 0.430) [0.448] 0.14 (− 0.145, 0.421) [0.419]  
RAVLT Recognition Trial z-score
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) 0.57 (0.22) 0.20 (0.20) 0.11 (0.22)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.46 (−0.045, 0.969) [0.134] 0.09 (− 0.402, 0.578) [0.767]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) 0.50 (0.21) 0.32 (0.19) 0.18 (0.20)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.32 (−0.153, 0.802) [0.262] 0.14 (− 0.318, 0.600) [0.612]  
Mean z-score for RAVLT memory domains
 Mean change at 3 months from baseline (SE) 0.64 (0.12) 0.27 (0.11) 0.23 (0.12)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.40 (0.126, 0.679) [0.017] 0.04 (− 0.230, 0.304) [0.819]  
 Mean change at 9 months from baseline (SE) 0.67 (0.10) 0.48 (0.10) 0.36 (0.10)
  Difference (intervention – control) (90% CI) [p] 0.31 (0.068, 0.548) [0.035] 0.13 (− 0.102, 0.358) [0.358]  
  1. Mean values were estimated using a linear mixed-effects model adjusted for baseline values and gender. See “Methods” section for outcome definitions
  2. RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, SE standard error, CI confidence intervals