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Table 1 Baseline demographic and neurocognitive characteristics

From: Art therapy is associated with sustained improvement in cognitive function in the elderly with mild neurocognitive disorder: findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial for art therapy and music reminiscence activity versus usual care

Characteristics Art therapy
(n = 22)
Music reminiscence activities
(n = 24)
Control
(n = 22)
Age (years), mean (SD) 71.1 (4.8) 71.6 (5.3) 70.6 (5.8)
Female, n (%) 18 (81.8) 20 (83.3) 18 (81.8)
Living with partner, n (%) 14 (63.6) 15 (62.5) 20 (90.9)
Education years, mean (SD) 5.2 (4.1) 5.0 (3.3) 6.1 (3.4)
Working, n (%) 4 (18.2) 2 (8.3) 9 (40.9)
Body mass index, mean (SD) 24.9 (3.6) 23.5 (3.8) 22.8 (3.9)
Medical condition, n (%)
 High blood pressure 14 (63.6) 18 (75.0) 6 (27.3)
 High cholesterol 11 (50.0) 15 (62.5) 7 (31.8)
 Diabetes mellitus 2 (9.1) 8 (33.3) 5 (22.7)
 Others 2 (9.1) 3 (12.5) 3 (13.6)
Neurocognitive domain z-score, mean (SD)
 RAVLT List Learning Sum 0.04 (1.35) 0.01 (1.26) −0.01 (1.26)
 RAVLT Delayed Recall −0.05 (0.98) − 0.01 (1.10) 0.05 (0.87)
 RAVLT Recognition Trial −0.05 (1.28) 0.26 (1.10) 0.14 (0.91)
 Mean of memory domains (RAVLT subsets) −0.02 (0.97) 0.09 (0.95) 0.06 (0.79)
 WAIS-III Block Design −0.74 (1.16) −0.93 (1.04) − 0.47 (0.85)
 WAIS-III Digit Span (Forward) 1.33 (1.59) 1.79 (1.65) 2.15 (1.77)
 Color Trails 2 −0.55 (1.38) −1.15 (1.46) −0.82 (1.91)
 Mean of all domains −0.00 (0.42) −0.01 (0.59) 0.17 (0.56)
Number of domains with z-score < − 1.5, mean (SD) 1.41 (0.80) 1.71 (0.81) 1.14 (0.35)
GAI total score, mean (SD) 2.0 (3.9) 2.1 (4.0) 2.8 (4.1)
GAD total score, mean (SD) 2.5 (2.9) 1.8 (2.2) 2.8 (2.9)
Sleep quality VAS, mean (SD) 67.0 (26.1) 68.4 (19.8) 69.8 (16.5)
  1. See “Methods” section for outcome definitions
  2. RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, WAIS-III Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition, GAI Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, GAD Geriatric Depression Scale, SD standard deviation