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Table 3 Cox regression

From: Expert versus generalist inserters for peripheral intravenous catheter insertion: a pilot randomised controlled trial

  Univariable Multivariable
n = 119
Study group: generalist (ref. VAS) 1.03 (0.61–1.73) 1.18 (0.70–2.00)
Sex: male (ref. female) 0.61 (0.35–1.05)* #
Age (increment of 1 year) 1.00 (0.98–1.01) ^
Body mass index (increment of 1) 0.99 (0.94–1.03) ^
Comorbidities (none /1/2/3/4 or more) 0.96 (0.81–1.16) ^
Insertion on dominant side (ref. no) 1.03 (0.62–1.72) ^
Bed-bound at insertion (ref. no) 1.74 (0.93–3.24)* 2.17 (1.14–4.11)**
Medical reason for admission (ref. surgical) 2.08 (1.22–3.55)*** 2.08 (1.21–3.57)***
Infection at recruitment (ref. no) 0.90 (0.52–1.55) ^
Vein assessment (ref. excellent):   ^
 Good 0.70 (0.32–1.52) ^
 Fair/poor 0.34 (0.67–2.10) ^
Location selected was location in which PVC was placed (ref. no) 0.79 (0.47–1.34) ^
Difficulty with previous insertion (ref. no) 0.99 (0.56–1.74) ^
PVC is the appropriate device (ref. no) 0.72 (0.39–1.32) ^
Device gauge: other (ref. 22) 0.64 (0.36–1.11)* #
Location (ref. posterior lower forearm):   ^
 Upper anterior forearm 1.49 (0.75–2.97)  
 Wrist 1.31 (0.61–2.79)  
 Hand 1.89 (0.87–4.14)*  
 Other 0.73 (0.27–1.98)  
Multiple insertion attempts (ref. no) 0.95 (0.53–1.73) ^
Dressing: non-sterile tapea (ref. never) 0.38 (0.20–0.74)*** 0.36 (0.18–0.70)***
Dressing: Tubigripa (ref. never) 0.81 (0.46–1.42) ^
Dressing dirty/wet/damageda (ref. never) 0.89 (0.42–1.85) ^
Fluids a (ref. never) 1.00 (0.59–1.68) ^
Antibioticsa, b (ref. never) 1.35 (0.72–2.51) ^
Anaesthesiaa (ref. never) 0.78 (0.42–1.46) ^
Cefazolina (ref. never) 0.87 (0.47–1.62) ^
Pain relief a (ref. never) 0.97 (0.56–1.66) ^
Other IV medicationa, c (ref. never) 0.71 (0.38–1.31) ^
Antiemetic and antireflux a (ref. never) 0.93 (0.50–1.73) ^
Accesses (total, none /1 to 3/4 to 6/7 or more) 0.85 (0.69–1.05)* #
  1. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals shown
  2. *p value < 0.20, **p value < 0.05, ***p value < 0.01
  3. # dropped from multivariable model at p ≥ 0.05, ^ ineligible for multivariable analysis at overall p ≥ 0.20
  4. aAt any time during study
  5. bIncludes ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, gentamicin, vancomycin, ceftazidime, azithromycin, meropenem, cefepime, or augmentin
  6. cIncludes Frusemide, contrast, insulin, magnesium, or thiamine
  7. VAS vascular access specialist, PVC peripheral intravenous catheter