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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by study groups

From: Expert versus generalist inserters for peripheral intravenous catheter insertion: a pilot randomised controlled trial

  n VAS n Generalist Total
Group sizea   69 (50)   69 (50) 138 (100)
Age (years)b 69 64.0 (47.0–73.0) 69 62.0 (47.0–71.0) 62.0 (47.0–73.0)
Sex: males 69 43 (62) 69 43 (62) 86 (62)
Weight category: overweight/obese 69 37 (54) 69 33 (48) 70 (51)
Skin integrity: good 69 41 (59) 69 36 (52) 77 (56)
Mobility at insertion: 69   69   
 Independent   35 (51)   53 (77) 88 (64)
 Required assistance to mobilise   21 (30)   9 (13) 30 (22)
 Bed-bound   13 (19)   7 (10) 20 (14)
Reason for admission: 69   69   
 Medical   19 (28)   19 (28) 38 (28)
 Surgical emergent   14 (20)   21 (30) 35 (25)
 Surgical elective   36 (52)   29 (42) 65 (47)
Infection at recruitment 69 21 (30) 69 21 (30) 42 (30)
Number of comorbidities: 69   69   
 Zero   12 (17)   10 (14) 22 (16)
 One   17 (25)   15 (22) 32 (23)
 Two   11 (16)   17 (25) 28 (20)
 Three   8 (12)   9 (13) 17 (12)
 Four or more   21 (30)   18 (26) 39 (28)
Wound (present at recruitment) 69 42 (61) 69 40 (58) 82 (59)
Vein assessment: 69   69   
 Excellent   18 (26)   25 (36) 43 (31)
 Good   14 (20)   19 (28) 33 (24)
 Fair or poor   37 (54)   25 (36) 62 (45)
Vein first choice for insertion: 69   69   
 Cephalic   38 (55)   45 (65) 83 (60)
 Medial antebrachial   15 (22)   6 (9) 21 (15)
 Accessory cephalic   8 (12)   8 (12) 16 (16)
 Other   8 (12)   10 (14) 18 (13)
Location first choice for insertion: 69   69   
 Posterior lower forearm   32 (46)   45 (65) 77 (56)
 Upper anterior forearm   20 (29)   7 (10) 27 (20)
 Wrist   12 (17)   10 (14) 22 (16)
 Other   5 (7)   7 (10) 12 (9)
Device sequence: 69   69   
 Initial   3 (4)   0 (0) 3 (2)
 Subsequent   66 (96)   69 (100) 135 (98)
Reason for insertion: 69   69   
 IV medications only   20 (29)   20 (29) 40 (29)
 IV medications and/or fluids   49 (71)   49 (71) 98 (71)
PVC is the appropriate device 69 58 (84) 69 55 (80) 113 (82)
Insertion difficulty (0 = none, 10 = max)b 69 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 11 2.0 (1.0–5.0) 2.0 (0.5–5.0)
Pain at insertion (0 = none, 10 = max)b 69 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 44 3.0 (1.0–4.0) 2.0 (1.0–3.0)
Device size (gauge): 69   50   
 22   46 (67)   25 (50) 71 (60)
 20   21 (30)   19 (38) 40 (34)
 Other   2 (3)   2 (4) 4 (3)
 Not documented   0 (0)   4 (8) 4 (3)
Reason for choosing sizec: 69   11   
 Clinician preference   41 (59)   10 (90) 51 (64)
 Patient has limited vein size   33 (48)   2 (18) 35 (44)
 Other   13 (19)   1 (9) 14 (18)
IV placement: 69   50   
 Cephalic   31 (45)   20 (40) 51 (43)
 Medial antebrachial   16 (23)   3 (6) 19 (16)
 Accessory cephalic   10 (14)   3 (6) 13 (11)
 Metacarpal   3 (4)   10 (20) 13 (11)
 Other   9 (13)   14 (28) 23 (19)
IV location: 69   50   
 Posterior lower forearm   26 (38)   13 (26) 39 (33)
 Upper anterior forearm   22 (32)   4 (8) 26 (22)
 Wrist   14 (20)   9 (18) 23 (19)
 Hand   3 (4)   14 (28) 17 (14)
 Other   4 (6)   10 (20) 14 (12)
Side of insertion: right 69 38 (55) 50 23 (46) 61 (51)
Skin hair prior to insertion: 69   50   
 None present   31 (45)   31 (62) 62 (52)
 Clipped   38 (55)   3 (6) 41 (34)
 Unclipped   0 (0)   16 (32) 16 (13)
  1. Frequencies and column percentages shown, unless otherwise noted
  2. a Row percentages shown
  3. b Median and 25th–75th percentiles shown
  4. c Multiple responses allowed
  5. n number of non-missing observations, VAS vascular access specialist, IV intravenous, PVC peripheral intravenous catheter, max maximum