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Table 1 Characteristics of 77 included studies, by non-inferiority and superiority trials

From: Clinical significance in pediatric oncology randomized controlled treatment trials: a systematic review

Characteristic Non-inferiority trials (N = 11) Superiority trials
(N = 66)
  n % n %
Journal of publication
Journal of Clinical Oncology 3 27.3 25 37.9
Blood 2 18.2 10 15.2
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 0 0.0 6 9.1
Leukemia 1 9.1 4 6.1
Lancet 2 18.2 1 1.5
Cancer 0 0.0 4 6.1
Lancet Oncology 1 9.1 3 4.5
New England Journal of Medicine 1 9.1 2 3
 Other 1 9.1 11 16.7
Region of publication
 Europe 6 54.5 23 34.8
 North America 4 36.4 41 62.1
 Other 1 9.1 2 3
Year of publication
 1976 to 1989 1 9.1 4 6.1
 1990 to 2003 4 36.4 28 42.4
 2004 to 2016 6 54.5 34 51.5
Source of funding
 Non-industry 10 90.9 56 84.8
 Industry and non-industry 0 0.0 2 3
 Not stated 1 9.1 8 12.1
Study participants
 Exclusively children 7 63.6 41 62.1
 Adults included 4 36.4 25 37.9
Disease site
 Hematological 7 63.6 43 65.2
 Central nervous system tumor 1 9.1 11 16.7
 Non-central nervous system solid tumor 3 27.3 12 18.2
RCT study design
 2 × 2 factorial 0 0.0 4 6.1
 Greater than 2 arms 1 9.1 5 7.6
 Two-armed 10 90.9 57 86.3
RCT trial group
 POG 1 9.1 15 22.7
 CCG 1 9.1 12 18.2
 COG 0 0.0 8 12.1
 BFM 1 9.1 9 13.6
 UK MRC 1 9.1 4 6.1
 Other 7 63.6 18 27.3
Outcome
 Time-to-event 10 90.9 56 84.8
 Dichotomous 1 9.1 10 15.2
Intervention in question
 Chemotherapy 9 81.8 57 86.4
 Multimodal therapy 0 0.0 2 3
 Hemopoietic stem-cell transplant 1 9.1 6 9.1
 Radiation therapy 1 9.1 1 1.5
  1. RCT randomized control trial, POG Pediatric Oncology Group, CCG Children’s Cancer Group, COG Children’s Oncology Group, BFM Berlin Frankfurt Münster Study Group; UK MRC United Kingdom Medical Research Council