Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Treatment effects (intention-to-treat analysis)

From: Speech-guided breathing retraining in asthma: a randomised controlled crossover trial in real-life outpatient settings

Outcome ATS, mean (SD)
(n = 49)
Waiting, mean (SD)
(n = 49)
Effect size, Cohen’s d (95% CI) p value
Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire
 Overall 0.63 (0.67) 0.07 (0.63) 0.86 (0.43 to 1.28) 0.001
 Symptoms 0.60 (0.87) 0.03 (0.72) 0.71 (0.28 to 1.12) 0.006
 Activity limitation 0.74 (0.76) 0.10 (0.76) 0.84 (0.41 to 1.25) 0.001
 Emotional function 0.57 (0.85) 0.05 (0.91) 0.58 (0.17 to 0.99) 0.013
 Environmental exposure 0.56 (1.03) 0.15 (0.84) 0.43 (0.02 to 0.84) 0.079
Lung function
 FEV1, L − 0.01 (0.32) 0.05 (0.29) − 0.18 (− 0.58 to 0.23) 0.471
 FVC, L 0.02 (0.33) 0.03 (0.30) − 0.06 (− 0.46 to 0.35) 0.805
 FEV1/FVC, % 0.00 (0.09) 0.01 (0.10) −0.01 (− 0.41 to 0.40) 0.385
Inhaled glucocorticoids, μg per week†‡ 6.96 (189.08) −8.35 (168.63) 0.09 (−0.31 to 0.48) 0.581
Asthma Control Test 1.57 (4.06) −0.51 (3.78) 0.53 (0.12 to 0.94) 0.048
Peak flow (morning), L/min 8.27 (46.30) 5.42 (44.18) 0.06 (−0.35 to 0.47) 0.519
Peak flow (evening), L/min 9.24 (50.66) 9.71 (44.19) −0.01 (− 0.42 to 0.40) 0.943
Days without asthma exacerbation per week 0.20 (1.27) 0.05 (0.98) 0.12 (−0.29 to 0.53) 0.758
  1. Changes from the beginning to the end of the respective phase are presented. Dependent t-test was used if not stated otherwise
  2. ATS anthroposophic therapeutic speech, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced expiratory vital capacity, SD standard deviation
  3. Wilcoxon signed-rank test
  4. In reliever medication